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(1997). Wired for action. Greenpeace Quarterly 2 (2), 24.  

(1998). Inside Washington: On-line lobbying has played a huge role in our daily battle to pass H.R. 1151. Credit Union Magazine 64 (7), 53.

Abbott, J. P. (2001). Democracy@internet.asia? The Challenges to the Emancipatory Potential of the Net: Lessons from China and Malaysia.
Third World Quarterly, 22(1), 99-114.

Abramson, J. (1988). The Electronic Commonwealth. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.

Adler, E.S., Gent, C.E. & Overmeyer, C.B. (1998). The Homestyle homepage: legislator use of the world wide web for constituency contact. Legislative Studies Quarterly 23 (4), 585- 595.

Agboh, D.K. (1994). The use and impact of computer technology on political elections.  Computers and Society 24 (1), 21-27. 

Agre, P. (1999). Designing effective action alerts for the Internet. Retrieved from the World Wide Web from http://dlis.gseis.ucla.edu /people/pagre/alerts.html

Agre, P. (2002). Real-Time Politics: The Internet and the Political Process. The Information Society, 18, (5), 311-331.

Ayers, J.M. (1999). From the streets to the Internet: the cyberdiffusion of contention. Annuals 566, 132-143.

Bakardjieva, M. & Feenberg, a. (2002). Community Technology and Democratic Rationalization. The Information Society, 18, (3), 181-192.

Baldauf, S. (1999). Political Internet sites weave a tangled web for media. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from the World Wide Web April 20, 1999 from http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/1999/04/20/p1s3.htm

Beckles, C.A. (2001). Black liberation and the Internet: A strategic analysis. Journal of black studies. 31 (3), 311-324.

Beder, S. (1998). Public relations’ role in manufacturing artificial grassroots coalitions. Public Relations Quarterly 43 (2), 20-24.

Bennett, D. & Fielding, P. (1999). The net effect: how cyber-advocacy is changing the political landscape. Merrifield, VA: E-Advocates Press.

Bennett, W.L. & Xenos, M. (2004). Young voters and the web of politics.  CIRCLE Working Paper #20..College Park: CIRCLE

Bennett, R.L. (2003). Communicating global activism: Strengths and vulnerabilities of networked politics. Information, Communication & Society, 6, (2), 143–168.

Bergan, D.E. (2009). Does grassroots lobbying work? A Field experiment measuring the effects of an e-mail lobbying campaign on legislative behavior. American political research. 37 (2), 327-352.

Biddix, J. P. & Park, H.W. (2008). Online networks of student protest: The case of the living wage campaign. New Media and Society. 10(6), 871-891.

Bimber, B. (1998). The Internet and citizen communication with government: does the medium matter? Presentation at the 1998 Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA. September 3-6.

Bimber, B. (2000).The Study of Information Technology and Civic Engagement. Political Communication 17, 329-333.

Bimber, B. (1998). The Internet and political mobilization. Social Science Computer Review 16 (4), 391-401.

Bimber, B. & Davis, R.  (2003). Campaigning On-line:  The Internet in US Elections.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Bimber, B. (2001). Information and Political Engagement in America: The Search for Effects of Information Technology at the Individual Level. Political Research Quarterly 54, 53-67.

Bimber, B. (1998). The Internet and Political Transformation: Populism, Community, and Accelerated Pluralism. Polity 31(1): 133-160.

Bloom, J. (2003). The Blogosphere: How a Once-Humble Medium Came to Drive Elite Media Discourse and Influence Public Policy and Elections. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia Mariott Hotel.

Blundo, R.G., Mele, C. & Watson, J. (1999). The Internet and demystifying power differentials: a few women on-line and the Housing Authority. Journal of Community Practice 6 (2), 11.

Boland, K.M. (1998). Electronic advocacy: an introduction to the use of electronic techniques for social change. Boxboro, MA: New England Network for Child, Youth and Family Services.

Bonchek, M.S. (1995). Grassroots in cyberspace: using computer networks to facilitate political participation. Presentation at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL. April 6, 1995. Available online at http://www.ai.mit.edu/people/msb/pubs/grassroots.html

Bonner, J. (1998). The Internet and grassroots lobbying: the next wave. Campaigns and Elections 19 (9), 46-48.

Borland, J. (1998). Net lobbying grows up. TechWeb. Available at http://www.techweb.com/wire/story/TWB19980327S0018

Bovee, J. (1998). How do do opposition research on the Internet. Campaigns and Elections 19 (9), 48-52.

Bowen, C. (1996). Modem nation: the handbook of grassroots activism on line. New York: Times Books.

Brainard, L. A. (2003). Citizen organizing in cyberspace: Illustration from health care and implications for public administration. American review of public administration. 33 (4) 384-406.

Brainard, L.A. & Siplon, P.D. (2000). Cyberspace challenges to mainstream advocacy groups: the case of healthcare activism. Presentation at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC. August 31-September 2.

Brainard, L.A. & Siplon, P.D. (2002). Cyberspace challenges to mainstream nonprofit health organizations. Administration and society. 34 (2), 141-175 

Brainard, L.A. & Siplon, P.D. (2004).  Toward nonprofit organization reform in the voluntary spirit: Lessons from the Internet. Nonprofit and Voluntary sector quarterly. 33 (3), 435-457.

Brainard, L.A. & Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2004). Lost in cyberspace: Shedding light on the dark matter of grassroots organizations. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly. 33 (3), 32S-52S. 

Bryant, A. (2006). Wiki and the Agora: 'It's organizing Jim, but not as we know it'. Development in practice. 16 (6), 559-569.

Browning, G. (1996). Electronic democracy: using the Internet to influence American politics. Wilton, CT: Pemberton Press.

Buck, K. (1996). Community organizing and the Internet. Neighborhood Works 19 (2).

Buie, J. (n.d.) Think globally, act locally: how the Internet is changing advocacy --22 examples of citizen activism via computer. Available at http://www.us.net/indc/activis.htm

Cardini, M. (1996). Voters, candidates and campaigns in the information age: an overview and assessment. Harvard International journal of press/politics 1 (1), 36-56.

Casey, C. (1996). The Hill on the net: Congress enters the information age. Boston: Academic Press.

Cavanaugh, J. W. (2000). E-democracy: Thinking about the impact of technology on civic life. National Civic Review, 89(3), 229-234.

Chadwick, A. (2006). Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chadwick, A. (2003). Bringing e-democracy back in: Why it matters for future research on e-governance. Social Science Computer Review, 21(4), 443-455.

Chadwick, A. (2007). Digital Network Repertoires and Organizational Hybridity. Political Communication 24 (3):283-301.

Chaney, J.D., Jones, E. & Galer-Unti, R. (2003). Using technology in advocacy efforts to aid in Tobacco policy and politics. Health promotion practice. 4 (3), 218-224

Clark, J. D. & Themudo, N. S. (2006). Linking the web and the street: Internet based "Dotcauses" and the rise of the "Antiglobalization" movement. World development. 34 (1), 50-74.

Clausing, J. & Rainey, R.F. (1998, January 15). More members are plugged in but few are making connections. New York Times/Cybertimes. Retrieved from the World Wide Web from http://www.nytimes.com/library/cyber/week/011598congress.html

Clift, S. (2000). The e-democracy e-book: democracy is online 2.0. Retrieved from the World Wide Web from http://www.publicus.net

Cliff, S. (1997, February 19-21). Building citizen-based electronic democracy efforts. Presentation at the Internet and Politics: The Modernization of Democracy Through the Electronic Media. Conference of the Academy of the Third Millennium in Munich, Germany. Available online at http://www.e-democracy.org/intl/library/build.html

Congressional Management Foundation (2005). Communicating with Congress: How capital hill is coping with the surge in citizen advocacy. Washington, DC: Author.

Congressional Management Foundation (2008). Communicating with Congress: Recommendations for improving the democratic dialog. Washington, DC: Author.

Conner, M. (1997). New ways to reach voters and influence public opinion on the Internet. Campaigns and Elections 18 (8), 64-68.

Coombs, K. (1999). Online voter mobilization: the Gilmore model. Campaigns and Elections 20 (1), 26-29.

Coombs, W.T. (1998). The Internet as potential equalizer: new leverage for confronting social irresponsibility. Public Relations Review 24 (3), 289-296.

Corman, S.R. (1994). Uses and users of a Congressman’s network information service. Internet Research 4 (4), 36.

Cornfield, M. (2004). Politics moves online. Washington, DC; Brookings.

Cyriac, J. (2000). Nonprofits use Internet as advocacy tool in cyberspace. Public Interest Law Reporter 5 (3), 15-18.

Dahlberg, L. (2001). The Internet and Democratic Discourse: Exploring the Prospects of Online Deliberative Forums Extending the Public Sphere. Information Communication and Society 4 (1):615-633.

Dahlgren, P. 2000. The Internet and the Democratization of Civic Culture. Political Communication 17 (4):335-340.

Darr, C., Barko, J. & Robinson, B. (2004). Putting on-line Influentials to work for your campaign. Washington, DC: The Institute for politics, democracy and the Internet.

Davis, S., Elin, L. & Reeher, G. (2002). Click on democracy: the Internet's power to change political apathy into civic action. Boulder: Westview.

Davis, R. (1999). The web of politics: The Internet’s impact on the American political system. New York: Oxford University Press.

Davis, R. (2005). Politics On-line: Blogs, chat rooms and discussion groups in American democracy. New York: Routledge.

Deibert, R.J. (2000). International plug ‘n play? Citizen activism, the Internet, and global public policy. International Studies Perspectives 1 (3), 255-272.

Delany, C. (2006).On-line Politics 101. NP: E.politics. download from www.epolitics.com

Della Porta, D. & Mosca, L. (2005). Global net for global movements? A Network of networks for a movement of movements. Journal of public policy. 25 (1), 163-190.

Demko, P. (1998, April 9). Acting up on line. Chronicle of Philanthropy 10 (34), 36-37.

Dederich, L., Hausman, T. & Maxwell, S. (2006). Online technology for social change: From Strategy to Struggle. Oakland, CA: Dotorganize. http:// www.dotorganize.org

Diani, M. & D. McAdam (Eds.), (2003). Social movements and networks: Relational approaches to collective action. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dickinson, T. (2008). The Machinery of hope: Inside the grassroots field operation of Barak Obama, who is transforming the way political campaigns are run. The Rolling Stone. issue 1048-Cover Story  www.rollingstone.org

Dijk, J. v. & Hacker, K. L. (2000). Digital democracy: issues of theory and practice. London, Sage.

Downing, J. (1989). Computers for Political Change: Peacenet and public data access. Journal of Communication 39: 154-162

Dreyfuss, R. & Stolper, A. (1998). Getting out the vote, ‘90s style. Campaigns and Elections 19 (10), 15-20.

Drinkard, J. (1999, August 31). Internet transforming US politics. USA Today. Retrieved from the World Wide Web from http://www.usatoday.com/news/acovtue.htm

Drost, K. & Jorna, M. (2000). Empowering women through the Internet: Dutch women unite. First Monday. Available at http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/isssue5_10/drost/index.html

Dryzek, J. S. (1990). Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy, and Political Science. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dulio, D. (1999). Untangled Web: Internet Use During the 1998 Election. PS: Political Science & Politics 32, 53-59.

Dutton, W.H., Elberse, A. & Hale, M. (1999). A case study of a Netizen’s guide to elections. Communications of the ACM 42 (12), 48-54.

Dutton, W. H., & Peltu, M. (2007). Reconfiguring Government-Public Engagements: Enhancing the Communicative Power of Citizens. Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute.

Earl, J. & Schussman, A. (2003). The new site of activism: On-Line organizations, movement entrepreneurs, and the changing nature of social movement decision-making. Research in Social Movements: Consensus decision making, Northern Ireland and indigenous movements.  24, 155-87.

Earl, J. & Schussman, A. (2004). Cease and desist: Repression, strategic voting and the 2000 US Presidential election.  Mobilization. 9 (2), 181-202.

Earl, J. (2006). Pursuing social change on-line: The Use of four protest tactics on the Internet.  Social science computer review. 24 (3), 362-377.

Earl, J.  (2007). Leading tasks in a leaderless movement: The Case of strategic voting.  American behavioral scientist. 50 (10), 1327-1349.

Earl, J. & Kimport, K. (2011). Digitally enabled social change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Faucheux, R. (1998). How campaigns are using the Internet: an exclusive nationwide survey. Campaigns and Elections 19 (9), 22-25.

Feld, L & Wilcox, N (2008). Netroots rising. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Ferdinand, P. (2000). The Internet, democracy, and democratization, Portland, OR: Frank Cass.

Fine, A. (2006). Momentum: Igniting social change in the connected age. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Fisher, D.R. (1998). Rumoring theory and the Internet. Social Science Computer Review 16 (2), 158-168.

FitzGerald, E. & McNutt, J.G. (1997, March). Electronic advocacy in policy practice: a framework for teaching technologically based practice. Presentation at the 1997 CSWE Annual Program Meeting, Chicago, IL.

FitzGerald, E. & McNutt, J.G. (1999). Electronic advocacy in policy practice: a framework for teaching technologically based practice. Journal of Social Work Education 35 (3), 331- 341.

Foster, P.O. (1999). Lobbying on the Internet and the Internet Revenue Code’s regulation of charitable organizations. New York  Law School Law Review 43 (2), 567.

Fransico, R. (1999). Good e-mail campaigns vs. bad spampaigns. Campaigns and Elections 20 (6), 42-44.

Friedland, L. (1996). Electronic Democracy and the New Citizenship. Media, Culture and Society 18, 185-212

Friess, S. (1999, March 2). Cyberactivism. The Advocate 35.

Froehling, O. (1997). The cyberspace war of ink and Internet In Chiapas, Mexico. The Geographical Review, 291-307.

Fryer, B. & Chaudhry, L. (1999). Fwd: Fwd: Re: Read this now: E-mail has made it easier than ever to protest from your desktop, but is anyone getting the message? Mother jones 24 (2), 50.

Germany, J. B. (ed.) (2006). Person to person to person: Harnessing the political power of on-line social networks and user generated content. Washington, DC. The Institute for politics, democracy and the Internet, George Washington University.

Gibson, R., & Ward, S. (2002). Virtual campaigning: Australian parties and the impact of the internet. Australian Journal of Political Science, 37(1), 99-129.

Glusker, S. (1998). Women networking for peace and survival in Chiapas: militants, celebrities, academics, survivors and the stiletto heel brigade. Sex roles: A Journal of Research 39, 7- 8, 539.

Graff, G. M. (2007). The First Campaign: Globalization, the Web, and the Race for the White House. New York:   Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Greene, S.G. (2001). Technology helps small environmental group get big results. Chronicle of Philanthropy 13, 10.

Grefe, E. (2003). E-campaigning: what it is and how to do it. Journal of Public Affairs 3 (2), 21- 27.

Groper, R. (1996). Political participation and the Internet: a review essay. Political Communication 13, 247-256.

Grossman, L.K. (1995). The electronic republic: reshaping democracy in the information age. New York: Penguin Books.

Grossman, M. (2006). Environmental advocacy in Washington: A comparison with other Interest groups. Environmental politics. 15 (4), 628-638.

Gueorguieva, V. (2008.). Voters, MySpace, and YouTube: The Impact of Alternative Communication Channels on the 2008 Election Cycle and Beyond. Social Science Computer Review, 26:288-300.

Gulati, G. &  Williams, C.B. (2007). Closing the Gap, Raising the Bar: Candidate Web Site Communication in the 2006 Campaigns for Congress. Social Science Computer Review, 25. 443 - 465.

Hague, B. N. & Loader, B. (eds) (1999). Digital democracy : discourse and decision making in the Information Age. London ; New York, Routledge.

Hara, N., & Z. C. Estrada (2005). Analyzing the mobilization of grassroots activities via the Internet: A case study. Journal of Information Science, 31(6), 503-514.

Harmon, G. (1998).Web pages : 501©(4)/PACs need to be careful. Nonprofit Times 12, 24-5.

Hara, N., & Shachaf, P. (in press). Online peace movement organizations: A comparative analysis. In I. Chen & T. Kidd (Eds.).
Social information technology: Connection society and cultural issues. Hershey, PA: Idea Group.

Hara, N. (2008). Internet use for political mobilization: Voices of participants. First Monday, 13, (7).

Hayward, A. (2000). Sam’s teach yourself today e-politics. Indianapolis: Sams.

Herrnson, P.S., Stokes-Brown, A.K. & Hindmnan, M. (2007).  Campaign politics and the digital divide.  Political research quarterly. 60(1), 31-42.

Hick, S. & Halpin, E. (2001). Children’s rights and the Internet. Annuals 575, 56-70.

Hick, S. & Halpin, E. (2001). Human rights and the Internet. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

Hick, S. & McNutt, J. (Eds.). (2002). Advocacy and activism on the Internet: perspectives from community organization and social policy. Chicago: Lyceum Press.

Hill, K.A. & Hughes, J.E. (1998). Cyberpolitics: citizen activism in the age of the Internet. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Hill, K.A. & Hughes, J.E. (1997). Computer mediated communication: the USENET and political communities. Political Communications 14, 3-27.

Hindman, M. (2005). The real lessons of Howard Dean: Reflections on the first digital campaign. Politics in perspective. 3(1), 121-127.

Hindman, M. (2009). The Myth of digital democracy. Princeton:  Princeton University Press.

Ho, K.C., Baber, Z. & Khondker, H. (2002). "Sites" of resistance: alternative websites and state- society relations. British Journal of Sociology 53 (1), 127-148.

Hockaday, T. & Edlund, M. (1999). Banner advertising as a voter outreach tool. Campaigns and Elections 20 (4), 513-515.

Hood, C., and H. Margetts. (2007). The Tools of Government in the Digital Age. London: Palgrave.

Hopper, N. (1996). Politics on the web: making candidates flies instead of spiders. Computers and Society 26 (3), 23.

Hopps, J.G. & McNutt, J.G. (2004). Building Evidence Based Policy for Children: A Model for Advocates and Policymakers. Presentation Prepared for Presentation at the 50th Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education and the Seventh University of South Carolina Technology Conference, Anaheim, CA February 28-March 1,

Howard, P. N. (2006). New Media Campaigns and the Managed Citizen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Howard, P.N. (2005). Deep democracy, thin citizenship:  The Impact of digital media in political campaign strategy. Annuals (597), 153-170.

Howley, K. (2000). Radiocracy rulz! Microoradio as electronic activism. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 8 (3), 256 - 267.

Humphries, J. M. (2006). Cyberorganizing United States constituencies for Africa. Perspectives on global development and technology. 5 (3), 163-195.

Illia, L. (2003). Passage to cyberactivism: How dynamics of activism change. Journal of public affairs. 3 (4), 326-337.

Jaghoda, A.B (ed).. (2005). Crossing the river: The Coming age of the Internet in politics and advocacy. Washington, DC: XLIbris.

Jensen,  J. L. (2003). Virtual democratic dialog? Bringing together citizens and politicians. Information polity. 8, 29-47.

Jensen, M., Danziger, J. & Venkatesh, A.(2007). Civil Society and Cyber Society: The Role of the Internet in Community Associations and Democratic Politics. Information society 23 (1), 39-50

John, S. & Thompson, S. (2003). Lobbying in the 21st century. Journal of Public Affairs 3 (2), 9- 14.

Johnson, C. & Codron, A. (1998). Toward a cyberdemocracy: political promotions on the Internet. Journal of Non-Profit and Public Sector Marketing 6 (1), 105-118.

Johnson, D. (1999). Politics in cyberspace. The Futurist, 33 (1), 14.

Johnson, D.W. (2002). Campaign website: Another tool but no killer app. Journal of political marketing. 1 (1), 211-213.

Johnson, D.W. (2004). Congress online:  Bridging the gap between citizens and their representatives. New York: Routledge.

Jones, B. (2006). Crossing the digital divide: Integrating traditional and virtual organizing. Social Policy. 36 (3), 30-35.

Jones, N. (2003). 24 hour media. Journal of Public Affairs 3 (2), 27-32.

Jonnson,P. (2010, February 6) As counter-media fuels tea party movement, main stream media catches on. Christian science monitor. Retrieved fromhttp://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2010/0206/As-counter-media-fuels-tea-party-movement-main-stream-media-catches-on

Kakabadse, A., Kakabadse, N. K. & Kouzmin, A. (2003). Reinventing the democratic governance project through information technology? A growing agenda for debate. Public Administration Review, 63(1), 44-60.

Kahn, R. & Kellner, D. (2004). New media and Internet activism: From the 'Battle of Seattle' to blogging. New media and society. 6 (1), 87-95.

Kamarck, E. C. (2002). Political campaigning on the internet: Business as usual? In E. C. Kamarck & J. S. Nye (Eds.). Governance.com: Democracy in the information age (pp. 81-103). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

 Kamarck, E & Nye, J., (Eds.). (1999). Democracy.com? Governance in a Networked World. Hollis: Hollis Publishing.

 Kamarck, E &  Nye, J., (Eds.). (2003). Governance.com: Democracy in the information age. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

 Kaye, B.K. & Johnson, T.J. (2004). A Web for all reasons: Uses and gratifications of Internet components for political information. Telematics and informatics. 21, 197-223.

Kenix, L.J. (2008). The Internet as a tool for democracy? A survey of non-profit Internet decision-makers and Web users. First Monday, 13, (7)

Kim, J. (2001). Electronic advocacy by non-government organizations in Korea: changing practice of political advocacy. In The Impact of information technology on civil society: working Papers from the Independent Sector’s 2001 Spring Research Forum. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.

Klein, Hans K. (1999). Tocqueville in Cyberspace: Using the Internet for Citizen Associations. The Information Society, 15, (4), 213-220.

Kling, R. (1986). The struggles for democracy in an information society. The Information Society,  4, (1-2), 001-008.

Kling, R., & Courtright, C. (2003). Characterizing Collective Behavior Online: The Social Organization of Hangouts, Clubs, Associations, Teams and Communities. The Information Society, 19, (3), 221-235

Knight, F. (1998). The Internet and politics—more unfulfilled promises. Business Communications Review 28 (11), 4.

Klotz, R. (1997). Positive spin: Senate campaigning on the web. PS: Political Science and Politics 30, 482-486.

Klotz, R. (1998). Virtual criticism: negative advertising on the Internet in the 1996 Senate races. Political Communication 15, 347-365.

Krause, A., Stein, M. & Clark, J. (1998). The virtual activist: a training course. Netaction. Available at http://www.netaction.org/training/

Krause, A. (1997). Can the spam. Mother Jones 22 (7).

Krause, A. (1997). The online activist: tools for organizing in cyberspace. Mother Jones 22 (4).

Krehely, J &  Montilla, M. (2001). Equitably wired? Assessing e-advocacy techniques of national child advocacy organizations. In The impact of information technology on civil society: working papers from the Independent Sector’s 2001 Spring Research Forum. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.

Kurland, N. & and Egan, T. (1996). Engendering Democratic Participation via the Net: Access, Voice and Dialogue. The Information Society, 12, (4), 387-406.

Kush, C. (2000). Cybercitizen: how to use your computer to fight for ALL the issues you care about. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Kutner, L.A. (2000). Environmental activism and the Internet. Electronic green journal. (12), np

Langman, L., Morris, D., Zalewski, J., Ignacio, E. & Davidson, C. (2000). Globalization, domination and cyberactivism. Presentation at Internet Research 1.0: The First Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers, Lawrence, KS. September 14-17, 2000.

Langman, L., & Morris, D. (2002). Internet mediation: A theory of alternative globalization movements. In M. Gurstein & S. Finquelievich (eds.), Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Community Informatics. Montreal, Canada, October 8, 2002.

Lavin, C. (1999). Building local grassroots coalitions . . . one e-mail at a time. Campaigns and Elections 20 (10), 60.

Law, A. (2007). Contesting the New Irrational Actor Model: A Case Study of Mobile Phone Mass Protest. Sociology.41, (3). 439-456

Lebkowsky, J. (1999). A few points about online activism. Cybersociology 5. Retrieved from the World Wide Web from http//:www.socio.demon.co.uk/magazine/5/5jon.htm

Lees-Marshment, J. (2003).  Marketing good works: New trends in how interest groups recruit supporters. Journal of public affairs. 3 (4), 358-370.

Leizerov, S. (2000). Privacy advocacy groups versus Intel: a case study of how social movements are tactically using the Internet to fight corporations. Social Science Computer Review 18 (4), 461-483.

Lemmon, P. & Carter, M. (1998). Speaking up in the Internet age. Washington, DC: OMBWatch.

Levine, P. & Lopez, M.H. (2004).  Young people and political campaigning on the Internet. CIRCLE Fact Sheet available at http://www.circle.org  The supportive studies are also available at this site.

Lewis, D., & Madon, S. (2004). Information Systems and Non-Governmental Development Organisations: Advocacy, Organisational Learning, and Accountability. The Information Society, 20, (2), 117-126

Lindauer, C. (1999). Tactical cartography: mapping the political battlefield and targeting campaign opportunities in the computer age. Campaigns and Elections 20 (3), 48-52.

Loeb, E. (1998). Summary statistics on Internet usage in campaign 98. Washington: Net.Capitol. Available at http://www.capweb.net/classic/epl1998.morph

Madon, S. & Sahay, S. (2002). An Information-Based Model of NGO-Mediation for the Empowerment of Slum Dwellers in Bangalore. The Information Society, 18, (1), 13-20.

Mann, W. (1995). Politics on the net: surfing the world of Internet politics. Indianapolis, IN: Que Books.

Margolis, M. & Resnick, D. (2000). Politics as usual: The cyberspace revolution. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Marlin, A.S. (1999). Politics on the web: why and where? Campaigns and Elections 20 (3), 11- 13.

Martin, K.D. & Kracher, B. (2008). A Conceptual framework for online business protest tactics and criteria for their effectiveness. Business and society. 47 (3), 291-311.

McCaughey, M. & Ayers, M.D. (Eds.). (2003). Cyberactivism: on-line activism in theory and practice. New York: Routledge.

McCullagh, K. (2003). E-Democracy: Potential for political revolution. International journal of law and information technology. 11(2), 149-161.

McLaughlin, T.J. & McNutt, J.G. (2004). State Legislative Term Limits and On-Line Activism. Paper Prepared for Presentation at the 50th Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education and the Seventh University of South Carolina Technology Conference, Anaheim, CA February 28-March 1, 2004.

McLaughlin, W.  (2003).  The use of the Internet for political action by non-state dissident actors in the Middle East. First Monday, 8, ( 11 )

McNamera, M.P. (2000, July 20). Project gives small non-profits big time mapping tool. New York Times On the Web.Available at www.nytimes.com

McNeal, R. & Fernandez, K. (2004). Grassroots Political Warriors (Moveon.org): Email and Political Mobilization. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL.

McNutt, J.G.  &  Barlow, J. (2012).  A Longitudinal Study of Political Technology Use by Nonprofit Child Advocacy Organizations. In Manoharan, A.& Holtzer, M.  (eds.) E-Governance and Civic Engagement: Factors and Determinants of E-Democracy. Harrisburg: IGI Books.

McNutt, J.G. (2011). Fighting for justice in cyberspace: The role of technology in advocacy. In Libby, P. The Lobbying strategy handbook. Thousand Oak: Sage Publications.

McNutt, J.G.   (2010). Using internet technology for transnational social work practice and education. In Transnational Social Work Practice, Edited by Nalini Negi &  Rich Furman.  New York: Columbia University Press.

McNutt, J.G.  (2007). Adoption of New Wave Electronic Advocacy Techniques by Nonprofit   Child Advocacy Organizations. Cortes, M. & Rafter, K (eds.), Nonprofits and Technology:  Emerging Research for Usable Knowledge. Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books:

McNutt, J.G. (2006). Building Evidence Based Advocacy in Cyberspace:  A Social Work Imperative for the New Millennium. Journal of evidence based practice 3 (2/3) 91-102.

McNutt, J.G. (2004). Teaching about Effective Advocacy in the New Millennium: Flash Campaigns, Smart Mobs and the New Face of Activism. Presented at the 2004 University of South Carolina Policy Conference, August 7-10

McNutt, J.G. & Appenzeller, G. (2004). The Three Ages of Cyberadvocacy: Prospects for
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McNutt, J.G., Rowland, R. & Houghton, A. (2004). Youth, the Internet and Political Engagement: Developing a Typology for Practice. Paper Presented at the 2004 Summer Institute on the Internet and Democracy, Syracuse University. July 7-8.

McNutt, J.G. & Queiro-Tajalli, I. (2003-2004). On-line Advocacy and Social Work Practice in Social Development: Empowerment, Strengths and Developmental Perspectives.Presentation at the 2003 IUCISD International symposium in Mumbai, India, December 29-January 4.

McNutt, J.G. & Boland, K.M. (2003). Levels of electronic government development and citizen use of the Internet for public policy change. Paper at the 32nd Annual meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Denver, CO November, 20-22 [Juried]

McNutt, J.G. (2003). Fighting on line for children. Presentation at Developing Strategies to Re-Professionalize Child Welfare in America: An Invitational Working Conference, University of Georgia, 10/17/03 - 10/18/03.

McNutt, J.G., Burke, K., Boland, K.M., Bartron, J. & Rice, D. (2001). Wired in beantown: a study of on-line advocacy by non-profits in the greater Boston area. In The impact of information technology on civil society: working papers from the Independent Sector’s 2001 Spring Research Forum. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.

McNutt, J.G., Keaney, W.F., Crawford, P., Schubert, L. & Sullivan, C. (2001). Going on-line for children: a national study of electronic advocacy by non-profit child advocacy agencies. In The impact of information technology on civil society: working papers from the Independent Sector’s 2001 Spring Research Forum. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.

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McNutt, J.G. & Boland, K.M. (1998, November). Electronic advocacy by non-profit organizations in social welfare policy formulation: a framework and results of a study. Presentation at the 27th Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Seattle, WA.

McNutt, J.G. (1999). National technology trends and social change strategies for the non-profit sector. Invited Plenary Presentation at the University at Albany’s Center for Women and Politics Non-Profit Education Initiative’s 1999 Fall Symposium Non- profits and Academia: Strategies for Social Change, Albany, NY.

McNutt, J.G., Lima, J., Penkaukaus, K. & Rusoff, M. (1999). A study of the impact of Internet based technologies on the legislative process at the state level. Presentation at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Arlington, VA.

McNutt, J.G. & Boland, K.M. (1999). Electronic advocacy by non-profit organizations in social welfare policy. Non-Profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 28 (4), 432-451.    

McNutt, J.G. (2000). Coming perspectives in the development of electronic advocacy for social policy practice. Critical Social Work 1 (1). Available at http://core.ecu.edu/socw/csw/

McNutt, J.G. (2000, July 5-8). The Internet and non-profit advocacy: patterns of web-based on- line advocacy in different organizational fields. Presentation at the International Society for Third-Sector Research Biennial Conference: The Third Sector: For What and For Whom? Dublin, Ireland.

McNutt, J.G. (2000, April). Electronic advocacy. Invited Presentation at the Maine Association of Non-Profits Astute Advocacy Conference, Augusta, ME.

McNutt, J.G. & Boland, K.M. (2000, November 15-18). Nonprofit advocacy in the cyber- commons. a study of technologically sophisticated non-profit organizations. Presentation at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, New Orleans, LA.

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McNutt, J.G. (2003, May 14-16). Advocacy organizations and the organizational digital divide. Presentation at International Perspectives on Social Welfare, Social Justice and Technology: University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

McNutt, J.G., Queiro-Tajalli, I. (2003-2004). On-line Advocacy and Social Work Practice in Social Development: Empowerment, Strengths and Developmental Perspectives. Accepted for presentation at the 2003 IUCISD International symposium in Mumbai, India, December 29-January 4.

McNutt, J.G. & Boland, K.M. (2003). Levels of electronic government development and citizen use of the Internet for public policy change. Paper accepted for the 32nd Annual meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Denver, CO November, 20-22

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