Social Media and Nonprofit Organizations: A Bibliography

Social Media and Web 2.0 refer to  a set of technologies that developed in the 1990s and early 2000s.  They were a movement forward from earlier systems that were based on the World Wide Web. Also referred to as the Read Write Web, they allowed users to publish their own content, to collaborate and to pool collective intelligence. Earlier, Web 1.0 and pre Internet technologies, required programming to create content for the Internet. The possibility of moving away from static webpages that required professional attention allowed even smaller nonprofits to have a place on the Internet. The technologies that are generally considered part of this group by serious scholars are blogs, social networking sites, Wikis, social bookmarking, microblogging, video and image sharing. Many current applications are improvements of earler technologies. This was referred to as creating a "Mash Up" early on.  Technology has moved on to Web 3.0 (The semantic web) and Web 4.0 is waiting in the wings. 

While Web 2.0 is current technology, it is not new or novel.  Most of the base technologies are at least two decades old or older.  Blogging, Social Networking Technology and Wikis  are products of the 1990s. Before there was Facebook, there was Friendster, Live Journal, sixdegrees and MySpace. There is new to you and new to the world.  In the world, Howard Dean used Web 2.0 to run for the Democratic Presidental Nomination in 2004 and in the early 2010s citizens of Northern Africa used it to organize a movement to remove brutal dictators. Political parties and social movement groups are nonprofit organizations.  The heyday of Social Media/Web 2.0 is generally considered 2000-2010.  Facebook and Twitter are relatively late entrants, as are Instagram and Ticktoc.

Having said that, social media today is not the same as social media in 2000 or 2010.  The rise of data science has made social media more powerful and attempts to weaponize it have yielded disquieting results.

As you may imagine, there is a substantial body of research on social media/Web 2.0. There are literly thousands of studies in many disciplines. There are whole journals dealing with social media.  Sophisticated qualitative and quanitative methodologies have developed.   Sadly, much of it is not reported in the small number of nonprofit scholarly journals and very little of it is cited there.

This bibliography is an attempt to provide nonprofit scholars with access to some of that literature. See also my electronic advocacy page  on social media.

General

Appleby, M. (2016). Nonprofit organizations and the utilization of social media: Maximizing and measuring return of investment. SPNHA Review, 12(1), 4.

Birdsall, W. F. (2007). Web 2.0 as a social movement. Webology, 4(2), 5-11.

Butcher, L (2009). Nonprofit Organizations Outpace Businesses in Use of Social Media.Oncology Times 31(21):p 39-40, November 10, 2009. | DOI: 10.1097/01.COT.0000364236.23415.2c

Caers, R., De Feyter, T., De Couck, M., Stough, T., Vigna, C., & Du Bois, C. (2013). Facebook: A literature review. New media & society, 15(6), 982-1002.

Campbell, D. A., & Lambright, K. T. (2019). Are you out there? Internet presence of nonprofit human service organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 48(6), 1296-1311.

Campbell, D. A., & Lambright, K. T. (2020). Terms of engagement: Facebook and Twitter use among nonprofit human service organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 30(4), 545-568.

Cho, M., Schweickart, T., & Haase, A. (2014). Public engagement with nonprofit organizations on Facebook. Public Relations Review, 40(3), 565-567.

Curtis, L., Edwards, C., Fraser, K. L., Gudelsky, S., Holmquist, J., Thornton, K., & Sweetser, K. D. (2010). Adoption of social media for public relations by nonprofit organizations. Public relations review, 36(1), 90-92.

Dumont, G. E. (2013). Nonprofit virtual accountability: An index and its application. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(5), 1049-1067.

Dumont, G. E. (2013). Transparency or accountability? The purpose of online technologies for nonprofits. International Review of Public Administration, 18(3), 7-29.

Fine, A. (2009). Using web 2.0 technologies to connect with new supporters. Nonprofit World, 27(4), 20-23.

Gao, F. (2016). Social media as a communication strategy: Content analysis of top nonprofit foundations’ micro-blogs in China. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 10(4), 255-271.

Goldkind, L. & McNutt, J.G. (2014). Social media & social change: Nonprofits and using social media strategies to meet advocacy goals. In A. M. Lucia-Casademunt & J. A. Ariza-Montes (Eds.), Information Communication Technologies (ICT) Management in Non-profit Organization. IGI Global.

Grant, S. (2009). Silos of helplessness: A cautionary tale about introducing social-media (Web 2.0) applications in the community sector. Third Sector Review, 15(2), 89-104.

Grocher, K., Wolf, L., Goldkind, L., Goldkind, L., Wolf, L., & Freddolino, P. P. (2018). Social media in agency settings. Digital Social Work: Tools for Practice with Individuals, Organizations, and Communities, 168.

Hovey, W. L. (2008). Role of Social Media in Organization-volunteer Relationships: A Qualitative Case Study of a Nonprofit Community Group (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon).

Ihm, J. (2019). Communicating without nonprofit organizations on nonprofits’ social media: Stakeholders’ autonomous networks and three types of organizational ties. New Media & Society, 21(11-12), 2648-2670.

Ihm, J. (2022). How individuals use nonprofit organizations’ social media pages: Understanding functions of and networks from individual posts for social change. Public Relations Review, 48(5), 102252.

Kanter, B., & Fine, A. (2010). The networked nonprofit: Connecting with social media to drive change. John Wiley & Sons.

Klafke, R. V., Gomes, P. M., Junior, D. M., Didonet, S. R., & Toaldo, A. M. (2021). Engagement in social networks: a multi-method study in non-profits organizations. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 18(2), 295-315.

Lim, W. M., Lim, A. L., & Phang, C. S. C. (2019). Toward a conceptual framework for social media adoption by non-urban communities for non-profit activities: Insights from an integration of grand theories of technology acceptance. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 23.

Lovejoy, K., & Saxton, G. D. (2012). Information, community, and action: How nonprofit organizations use social media. Journal of computer-mediated communication, 17(3), 337-353.

McNutt, J.G. (2007). Web 2.0 Tools for Policy Research and Advocacy. Journal of Policy Practice, 7 (1) 81-85.*

McNutt, J.G, Barlow, J & Carter, D. (2018). A Long Strange Trip: Social Media Adoption in a Group of Technologically Sophisticated Child Advocacy Organizations. (137-) In McNutt, J.G. (ed) Technology, Activism and Social Justice in a Digital Age. Oxford University Press.

McNutt, J.G. (2007). Adoption of New Wave Electronic Advocacy Techniques by Nonprofit Child Advocacy Organizations. Cortes, M. & Rafter, K (eds.), Information Technology Adoption in the Nonprofit Sector. [pp. 33-48] Lyceum Books.

McNutt, J.G. & Boland, K.(2013). Social Media and Leaderless Social Movement Organizations: Emerging Issues for Urban Studies. Paper Read at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Urban Affairs Association San Francisco, California April 3--6, 2013

McNutt, J.G. & Boland, K. (2012). Comparing Social Media Strategies of Lawmakers and State-Level Advocacy Groups. Paper read at the 2012 Northeast Conference on Public Administration (NECoPA), the University of Massachusetts at Boston, November 2-3.

McNutt, J.G. & Flanagan, M.* (2007). Social Networking Choices and Environmental Advocacy Organizations: Implications for Global Social Justice. Paper read at the 2007 Meeting of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Atlanta, GA.

McNutt, J.G, Barlow, J & Carter, D.* (2014). Child Advocates Making the Leap to New Technology: Technology Adoption in a Group of State-Level Child Advocacy Organizations. Paper read at the fifth annual Northeast Conference on Public Administration (NECoPA), Portsmouth, NH, November 6-8.

McEachern, R. W. (2010). (Un) civil Discourse in Nonprofits’ Use of Web 2.0. Reflections, 10(1).

Miller, D. (2010). Nonprofit organizations and the emerging potential of social media and internet resources. SPNHA Review, 6(1), 4.

Nah, S., & Saxton, G. D. (2013). Modeling the adoption and use of social media by nonprofit organizations. New media & society, 15(2), 294-313.

Okada, A., Ishida, Y., & Yamauchi, N. (2017). Effectiveness of social media in disaster fundraising: Mobilizing the public towards voluntary actions. International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age (IJPADA), 4(1), 49-68.

Raman, A. (2016). How do social media, mobility, analytics and cloud computing impact nonprofit organizations? A pluralistic study of information and communication technologies in Indian context. Information Technology for Development, 22(3), 400-421.

Sandberg, B., Hand, L. C., & Russo, A. (2022). Re-envisioning the role of “big data” in the nonprofit sector: A data feminist perspective. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 1-12.

Saxton, G. D., & Guo, C. (2020). Social media capital: Conceptualizing the nature, acquisition, and expenditure of social media-based organizational resources. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 36, 100443.

Saxton, G. D., & Waters, R. D. (2014). What do stakeholders like on Facebook? Examining public reactions to nonprofit organizations’ informational, promotional, and community-building messages. Journal of public relations research, 26(3), 280-299.

Seo, H., & Vu, H. T. (2020). Transnational nonprofits’ social media use: A survey of communications professionals and an analysis of organizational characteristics. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 49(4), 849-870.

Sun, R., & Asencio, H. D. (2019). Using social media to increase nonprofit organizational capacity. International Journal of Public Administration, 42(5), 392-404.

Tao, W., Li, Z. C., Chen, Z. F., & Ji, Y. G. (2021). Public responses to nonprofit social media messages: The roles of message features and cause involvement. Public relations review, 47(2), 102038.

Waters, R. D., & Lo, K. D. (2012). Exploring the impact of culture in the social media sphere: A content analysis of nonprofit organizations’ use of Facebook. Journal of intercultural communication research, 41(3), 297-319.

Waters, R. D., Burnett, E., Lamm, A., & Lucas, J. (2009). Engaging stakeholders through social networking: How nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Public relations review, 35(2), 102-106.

Waters, R. D., & Feneley, K. L. (2013). Virtual stewardship in the age of new media: have nonprofit organizations' moved beyond Web 1.0 strategies?. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 18(3), 216-230.

Vedel, I., Ramaprasad, J., & Lapointe, L. (2020). Social media strategies for health promotion by nonprofit organizations: Multiple case study design. Journal of medical Internet research, 22(4), e15586.

Xu, W., & Saxton, G. D. (2019). Does stakeholder engagement pay off on social media? A social capital perspective. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 48(1), 28-49.

Young, J. A. (2012). The current status of social media use among nonprofit human service organizations: An exploratory study. Virginia Commonwealth University.

Young, J. A. (2017). Facebook, Twitter, and blogs: The adoption and utilization of social media in nonprofit human service organizations. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 41(1), 44-57.

Methodology Articles

Borchers, C., Rosenberg, J. M., & Swartzentruber, R. M. (2023). Facebook post data: a primer for educational research. Educational technology research and development, 1-20.

Chen, Y., Sherren, K., Smit, M., & Lee, K. Y. (2023). Using social media images as data in social science research. New Media & Society, 25(4), 849-871.

Cooke, M., & Buckley, N. (2008). Web 2.0, social networks and the future of market research. International Journal of Market Research50(2), 267-292.

Courtois, C., & Mechant, P. (2013). An evaluation of the potential of Web 2.0 APIs for social research. In Audience Research Methodologies (pp. 224-236). Routledge.

Foust, C. R., & Hoyt, K. D. (2018). Social movement 2.0: Integrating and assessing scholarship on social media and movement. Review of Communication18(1), 37-55.

Fuchs, C. (2017). From digital positivism and administrative big data analytics towards critical digital and social media research!. European Journal of communication32(1), 37-49.

Hunter, R. F., Gough, A., O’Kane, N., McKeown, G., Fitzpatrick, A., Walker, T., ... & Kee, F. (2018). Ethical issues in social media research for public health. American Journal of Public Health108(3), 343-348.

Kapoor, K. K., Tamilmani, K., Rana, N. P., Patil, P., Dwivedi, Y. K., & Nerur, S. (2018). Advances in social media research: Past, present and future. Information Systems Frontiers20, 531-558.

Khang, H., Ki, E. J., & Ye, L. (2012). Social media research in advertising, communication, marketing, and public relations, 1997–2010. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly89(2), 279-298.

Leung, X. Y., Sun, J., & Bai, B. (2017). Bibliometrics of social media research: A co-citation and co-word analysis. International Journal of Hospitality Management66, 35-45.

Maramwidze-Merrison, E. (2016). Innovative methodologies in qualitative research: Social media window for accessing organisational elites for interviews. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods14(2), pp157-167.

Marres, N., & Moats, D. (2015). Mapping controversies with social media: The case for symmetry. Social Media+ Society1(2), 2056305115604176.

Murphy, J., Link, M. W., Childs, J. H., Tesfaye, C. L., Dean, E., Stern, M., ... & Harwood, P. (2014). Social media in public opinion research: Executive summary of the AAPOR task force on emerging technologies in public opinion research. Public Opinion Quarterly78(4), 788-794.

Poynter, R. (2010). The handbook of online and social media research: Tools and techniques for market researchers. John Wiley & Sons.

uan-Haase, A., & Sloan, L. (2017). The SAGE handbook of social media research methods. The SAGE Handbook of Social Media Research Methods, 1-728.

Early Work(2005 and Earlier)

Kahn, R., & Kellner, D. (2004). New media and internet activism: from the ‘Battle of Seattle’to blogging. New media & society6(1), 87-95.

Rheingold, H. (2003). From the Screen to the Streets. In These Times, Chicago, IL, USA.

Shah, Z. S. (2003). What’sa blog, and why should nonprofits care?. Nonprofit Quarterly10(4).

Tobias, V. (2005). Blog this! An introduction to blogs, blogging, and the feminist blogosphere. Feminist Collections26(2/3), 11.

Ververidis, S., & Varlamis, I. (1997). Non-Governmental Organizations in Greece gone virtual. Proceedings of the IFIP WG9, Athens.

Uslaner, E. M. (2004). Trust online, trust offline. Communications of the ACM47(4), 28-29.

Williams, A. P., Trammell, K. D., Postelnicu, M., Landreville, K. D., & Martin, J. D. (2005). Blogging and hyperlinking: Use of the Web to enhance viability during the 2004 US campaign. Journalism studies6(2), 177-186.

Fundraising

Bhati, A., & McDonnell, D. (2020). Success in an online giving day: The role of social media in fundraising. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 49(1), 74-92.

Di Lauro, S., Tursunbayeva, A., & Antonelli, G. (2019). How nonprofit organizations use social media for fundraising: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Business and Management, 14(7), 1.

Hart, T., Greenfield, J. M., & Haji, S. D. (2008). People to people fundraising: Social networking and Web 2.0 for charities. John Wiley and Sons.

Hommerová, D., & Severová, L. (2019). Fundraising of nonprofit organizations: Specifics and new possibilities. Journal of social service Research, 45(2), 181-192.

Lee, Y. J. (2021). Liked on Facebook, liked for real?: Nonprofits' online popularity and financial performance. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 31(3), 609-621.

Jilke, S., Lu, J., Xu, C., & Shinohara, S. (2019). Using large-scale social media experiments in public administration: Assessing charitable consequences of government funding of nonprofits. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 29(4), 627-639.

Jones-Smith, V. (2021). Nonprofit Leaders’ Digital Marketing Strategies to Secure and Sustain Donors (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Krueger, J. C., & Haytko, D. L. (2015). Nonprofit adaptation to Web 2.0 and digital marketing strategies. Journal of Technology Research, 6, 1.

Lam, W. F., & Nie, L. (2020). Online or offline? Nonprofits’ choice and use of social media in Hong Kong. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 31(1), 111-128.

Maqbool, N., Razzaq, S., Ul Hameed, W., Atif Nawaz, M., & Ali Niaz, S. (2019). Advance fundraising techniques: an evidence from non-profit organizations. Pakistan journal of humanities and social sciences, 7(1), 147-157.

Miller, B. (2009). Community fundraising 2.0—the future of fundraising in a networked society?. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 14(4), 365-370.

Saxton, G. D., & Wang, L. (2014). The social network effect: The determinants of giving through social media. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly, 43(5), 850-868.

Smitko, K. (2012). Donor engagement through Twitter. Public Relations Review, 38(4), 633-635.

Tian, F., Labban, A., Shearer, R., & Gai, Q. (2021). The impact of social media activity on nonprofit donations in China. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 32(2), 488-497.

Xiao, A., Huang, Y., Bortree, D. S., & Waters, R. D. (2022). Designing social media fundraising messages: An experimental approach to understanding how message concreteness and framing influence donation intentions. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 51(4), 832-856.

Zhou, H., & Ye, S. (2019). Legitimacy, worthiness, and social network: An empirical study of the key factors influencing crowdfunding outcomes for nonprofit projects. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 30, 849-864.

Advocacy

Auger, G. A. (2013). Fostering democracy through social media: Evaluating diametrically opposed nonprofit advocacy organizations’ use of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Public Relations Review, 39(4), 369-376.

Borne, G., & Clarke, D. (2018). Catalysing transitions through the informational governance of climate change advocacy: Using Web 2.0 in the surfing world. In Towards Coastal Resilience and Sustainability (pp. 79-93). Routledge.

Brown, H. (2016). Does globalization drive interest group strategy? A cross‐national study of outside lobbying and social media. Journal of Public Affairs, 16(3), 294-302.

Chalmers, A. W., & Shotton, P. (2015). Changing the Face of Advocacy?: Explaining When and Why Interest Groups use Social Media. Political Communication.33(3)

Chang, Y. J., Hsu, H. Y., & Wang, T. Y. (2008, April). Action science approach to nonprofit housing services using Web 2.0 mapping tools. In Proceedings of the 17th international conference on World Wide Web (pp. 953-958).

Cogburn, D. L., & Espinoza-Vasquez, F. K. (2011). From networked nominee to networked nation: Examining the impact of Web 2.0 and social media on political participation and civic engagement in the 2008 Obama campaign. Journal of political marketing, 10(1-2), 189-213.

Costanza-Chock, S. (2008). The immigrant rights movement on the net: Between" Web 2.0" and comunicacion popular. American Quarterly, 60(3), 851-864.

Dhar, Rituparna, Fayyaz Ahmad Paul, Banani Basistha, and Aasim Ur Rehman Ganie. "Impact of Social Media Among Vulnerable Sections of Society and the Construction of Social Problems." In The Palgrave Handbook of Global Social Problems, pp. 1-18. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2023.

De Blasio, E., & Sorice, M. (2014). Radicals, rebels and maybe beyond. Social movements, women’s leadership and the web 2.0 in the Italian political sphere.https://iris.luiss.it/bitstream/11385/95781/1/CMCSWP_0214.pdf

Edwards, H. R., & Hoefer, R. (2010). Are social work advocacy groups using Web 2.0 effectively?. Journal of Policy Practice, 9(3-4), 220-239.

Ferrari, E. (2016). Social media for the 99%? Rethinking social movements’ identity and strategy in the corporate web 2.0. Communication and the Public, 1(2), 143-158.

Figenschou, T. U., & Fredheim, N. A. (2020). Interest groups on social media: Four forms of networked advocacy. Journal of Public Affairs, 20(2), e2012.

Foust, C. R., & Hoyt, K. D. (2018). Social movement 2.0: Integrating and assessing scholarship on social media and movement. Review of Communication, 18(1), 37-55.

Gelfgren, S., Ineland, J., & Cocq, C. (2022). Social media and disability advocacy organizations: caught between hopes and realities. Disability & Society, 37(7), 1085-1106.

Greenberg, J., & MacAulay, M. (2009). NPO 2.0? Exploring the web presence of environmental nonprofit organizations in Canada. Global Media Journal: Canadian Edition, 2(1).

Gupta, K., Ripberger, J., & Wehde, W. (2018). Advocacy group messaging on social media: Using the narrative policy framework to study Twitter messages about nuclear energy policy in the United States. Policy studies journal, 46(1), 119-136.

Guo, C., & Saxton, G. D. (2020). The quest for attention: Nonprofit advocacy in a social media age. Stanford University Press.

Guo, C., & Saxton, G. D. (2014). Tweeting social change: How social media are changing nonprofit advocacy. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly, 43(1), 57-79.

Guo, C., & Saxton, G. D. (2018). Speaking and being heard: How nonprofit advocacy organizations gain attention on social media. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 47(1), 5-26.

Hong, S., & Nadler, D. (2015, May). Social media and political voices of organized interest groups: a descriptive analysis. In Proceedings of the 16th annual international conference on digital government research (pp. 210-216).

Johansson, H., & Scaramuzzino, G. (2022). The Phoenix syndrome: Netroots organizations strategies to gain and maintain digital resource abundance. New media & society, 24(12), 2581-2597.

Johansson, H., & Scaramuzzino, G. (2023). Digital resource abundance: How social media shapes success and failure of online mobilisation. Convergence, 13548565221149853.

Jung, K., No, W., & Kim, J. W. (2014). Who Leads Nonprofit Advocacy through Social Media? Some Evidence from the Australian Marine Conservation Society's Twitter Networks. Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia, 13(1).

Kanol, D., & Nat, M. (2017). Interest groups and social media: An examination of cause and sectional groups' social media strategies in the EU. Journal of Public Affairs, 17(3), e1649.

Kim, D., Chun, H., Kwak, Y., & Nam, Y. (2014). The employment of dialogic principles in website, Facebook, and Twitter platforms of environmental nonprofit organizations. Social science computer review, 32(5), 590-605.

Lee, Y. J. (2022). Social media capital and civic engagement: Does type of connection matter?. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 19(1), 167-189.

Lee, Y. J., & Ahn, H. Y. (2013). Interaction effects of perceived sponsor motives and Facebook credibility on willingness to visit social cause Facebook page. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 13(1), 41-52.

McNutt, J.G. (2018) (ed) Technology, Activism and Social Justice in a Digital Age. Oxford University Press.

Murthy, D. (2018). Introduction to social media, activism, and organizations. Social Media+ Society4(1), 2056305117750716.

Osterbur, M., & Kiel, C. (2021). Tweeting in echo chambers? Analyzing Twitter discourse between American Jewish interest groups. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 18(2), 194-213.

Rigby, B. (2008). Mobilizing Generation 2.0: A practical guide to using Web 2.0: technologies to recruit, organize and engage youth. John Wiley & Sons.

Sæbø, Ø., Federici, T., & Braccini, A. M. (2020). Combining social media affordances for organising collective action. Information Systems Journal, 30(4), 699-732.

Seelig, M. I., Millette, D., Zhou, C., & Huang, J. (2019). A new culture of advocacy: An exploratory analysis of social activism on the web and social media. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 27(1), 15-29.

She, C. (2022, January). Social media dissemination of counter accounts and stakeholder support–evidence from greenpeace’s “Save the Arctic” campaign on Facebook. In Accounting Forum (pp. 1-26). Routledge.

Smidi, A., & Shahin, S. (2017). Social media and social mobilisation in the Middle East: A survey of research on the Arab Spring. India Quarterly73(2), 196-209.

Smith, J. N. (2018). The social network?: Nonprofit constituent engagement through social media. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 30(3), 294-316.

Strandberg, K. (2013). A social media revolution or just a case of history repeating itself? The use of social media in the 2011 Finnish parliamentary elections. New media & society, 15(8), 1329-1347.

Solow-Niederman, A. G. (2010). The power of 140 characters?# IranElection and social movements in web 2.0. Intersect: The Stanford Journal of Science, Technology, and Society, 3(1), 30-39.

Suzor, N., Dragiewicz, M., Harris, B., Gillett, R., Burgess, J., & Van Geelen, T. (2019). Human rights by design: The responsibilities of social media platforms to address gender‐based violence online. Policy & Internet, 11(1), 84-103.

Svensson, P. G., Mahoney, T. Q., & Hambrick, M. E. (2015). Twitter as a communication tool for nonprofits: A study of sport-for-development organizations. Nonprofit and voluntary sector quarterly, 44(6), 1086-1106.

Van der Graaf, A., Otjes, S., & Rasmussen, A. (2016). Weapon of the weak? The social media landscape of interest groups. European journal of communication, 31(2), 120-135.

Vesa, J., Poutanen, P., Sund, R., & Vehka, M. (2022). An effective ‘weapon’for the weak? Digital media and interest groups’ media success. Information, Communication & Society, 25(2), 258-277.

Whitesell, A., Reuning, K., & Hannah, A. L. (2023). Local political party presence online. Party Politics, 29(1), 164-175.

Whitesell, A. (2019). Interest groups and social media in the age of the Twitter president. Politics, Groups, and Identities, 7(1), 219-230.

Wu, F., & Yang, S. (2016). Web 2.0 and political engagement in China. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 27, 2055-2076.

Yang, A., & Liu, W. (2022). Coalition Networks for the Green New Deal: Nonprofit Public Policy Advocacy in the Age of Social Media. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 08997640221123341.

Marketing

Amelia, S. R., & Dewi, M. K. (2021). How a nonprofit organization delivers online accountability through social media. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing18(3), 317-334.

Andreasen, A. R. (2012). Rethinking the relationship between social/nonprofit marketing and commercial marketing. Journal of public policy & marketing31(1), 36-41.

Gao, F. (2016). Social media as a communication strategy: Content analysis of top nonprofit foundations’ micro-blogs in China. International Journal of Strategic Communication10(4), 255-271.

Chalmers, A. W., & Shotton, P. A. (2016). Changing the face of advocacy? Explaining interest organizations’ use of social media strategies. Political Communication, 33(3), 374-391.

Chen, Y. (2022). The Role of Social Media Marketing in the Development of Arts Higher Education Schools in Philadelphia (Doctoral dissertation, Drexel University).

Crowder, C. (2020). Following Radical and Mainstream African-American Interest Groups on Social Media: An Intersectional Analysis of Black Organizational Activism on Twitter. National Review of Black Politics, 1(4), 474-495.

Enjolras, B. (2022). Determinants of Voluntary Organizations’ Attention on Facebook: The Case of Norwegian Voluntary Organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 08997640221129551.

Feng, Y., Du, L., & Ling, Q. (2017). How social media strategies of nonprofit organizations affect consumer donation intention and word-of-mouth. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal45(11), 1775-1786.

Gordon, A. (2017). Social media marketing strategies in nonprofit professional membership organizations (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Han, M. C. (2021). Thumbs down on “likes”? The impact of Facebook reactions on online consumers’ nonprofit engagement behavior. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing18(2), 255-272.

Krueger, J. C., & Haytko, D. L. (2015). Nonprofit adaptation to Web 2.0 and digital marketing strategies. Journal of Technology Research6, 1.

Mato-Santiso, V., Rey-García, M., & Sanzo-Pérez, M. J. (2021). Managing multi-stakeholder relationships in nonprofit organizations through multiple channels: A systematic review and research agenda for enhancing stakeholder relationship marketing. Public Relations Review, 47(4), 102074.

Mehrotra, A., & Siraj, S. (2021, January). Social media marketing-an effective solution for non-profit organizations. In 2021 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Data Science & Engineering (Confluence) (pp. 1072-1077). IEEE.

Namisango, F., & Kang, K. (2019). Organization-public relationships on social media: The role of relationship strength, cohesion and symmetry. Computers in Human Behavior101, 22-29.

Paulin, M., Ferguson, R. J., Jost, N., & Fallu, J. M. (2014). Motivating millennials to engage in charitable causes through social media. Journal of Service Management25(3), 334-348.

Paulin, M., Ferguson, R. J., Schattke, K., & Jost, N. (2014). Millennials, social media, prosocial emotions, and charitable causes: The paradox of gender differences. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing26(4), 335-353.

Saxton, G. D., & Waters, R. D. (2014). What do stakeholders like on Facebook? Examining public reactions to nonprofit organizations’ informational, promotional, and community-building messages. Journal of public relations research26(3), 280-299.

Smith, J. N. (2018). The social network?: Nonprofit constituent engagement through social media. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing30(3), 294-316.

Swart, C., du Plessis, C., & Greeff, E. (2021). An integrated social media communication view on content marketing by South African non-profit sectors. South African Journal of Information Management23(1), 1-9.

Waters, R. D., Burnett, E., Lamm, A., & Lucas, J. (2009). Engaging stakeholders through social networking: How nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Public relations review35(2), 102-106.

Wang, Y., & Yang, Y. (2020). Dialogic communication on social media: How organizations use Twitter to build dialogic relationships with their publics. Computers in Human Behavior104, 106183.

Wiley, K., Schwoerer, K., Richardson, M., & Espinosa, M. B. (2022). Engaging stakeholders on TikTok: A multi‐level social media analysis of nonprofit Microvlogging. Public Administration.

Wu, V. C. S. (2022). Exploring Donor Influence and Public Engagement: Computational and Thematic Analyses of Social Media Messages. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 1-17.

Service Delivery

Bernardi, C. L., & Alhamdan, N. (2022). Social media analytics for nonprofit marketing:# Downsyndrome on Twitter and Instagram. Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing, e1739.

Bolliger, D. U., & Shepherd, C. E. (2017). An investigation of mobile technologies and web 2.0 tools use in outdoor education programs. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership9(2).

Brengarth, L. B., & Mujkic, E. (2016). WEB 2.0: How social media applications leverage nonprofit responses during a wildfire crisis. Computers in Human Behavior54, 589-596.

Chang, Y. J., Wang, F. T. Y., Chuang, Y. C., & Tsai, S. K. (2007, November). Action Science Approach to Experimenting Nonprofit Web 2.0 Services for Employment of Individuals with Mental Impairments. In 2007 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conferences on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology-Workshops (pp. 288-291). IEEE.

Chang, Y. J., Hsu, H. Y., & Wang, T. Y. (2008, April). Action science approach to nonprofit housing services using Web 2.0 mapping tools. In Proceedings of the 17th international conference on World Wide Web (pp. 953-958).

Dineva, D., Breitsohl, J., Garrod, B., & Megicks, P. (2020). Consumer responses to conflict-management strategies on non-profit social media fan pages. Journal of Interactive Marketing52, 118-136.

Goldkind, L. (2015). Social media and social service: Are nonprofits plugged in to the digital age?. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance39(4), 380-396.

Liu, H. H., Zjang, K. J., Chang, Y. J., Wang, F. T. Y., & Chou, L. D. (2007, October). Testbed of web 2.0 services for individuals with mental illness. In TENCON 2007-2007 IEEE Region 10 Conference (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Lou, C., & Alhabash, S. (2018). Understanding non-profit and for-profit social marketing on social media: The case of anti-texting while driving. Journal of Promotion Management24(4), 484-510.

Namisango, F., Kang, K., & Rehman, J. (2021). Service co-creation on social media: varieties and measures among nonprofit organizations. Journal of Service Theory and Practice. 31, 5,  783-820

Vedel, I., Ramaprasad, J., & Lapointe, L. (2020). Social media strategies for health promotion by nonprofit organizations: Multiple case study design. Journal of medical Internet research22(4), e15586.

Arts Organizations

Colemen, L. J., Jain, A., Chene, D., & Bahnan, N. (2018). Marketing the Performing Arts: Efficacy of Web 2.0 Social Networks. Proceedings of the Northeast Business & Economics Association.

Hausmann, A., & Poellmann, L. (2013). Using social media for arts marketing: theoretical analysis and empirical insights for performing arts organizations. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing10(2), 143-161.

Lazzeretti, L., Sartori, A., & Innocenti, N. (2015). Museums and social media: the case of the Museum of Natural History of Florence. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing12(3), 267-283.

Suh, J. (2022). Revenue sources matter to nonprofit communication? An examination of museum communication and social media engagement. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing34(3), 271-290.

Adoption of Social Media

Chang, Y. J., Wang, F. T. Y., Chuang, Y. C., & Tsai, S. K. (2007, November). Action Science Approach to Experimenting Nonprofit Web 2.0 Services for Employment of Individuals with Mental Impairments. In 2007 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conferences on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology-Workshops (pp. 288-291). IEEE.

Curtis, L., Edwards, C., Fraser, K. L., Gudelsky, S., Holmquist, J., Thornton, K., & Sweetser, K. D. (2010). Adoption of social media for public relations by nonprofit organizations. Public relations review36(1), 90-92.

Dahnil, M. I., Marzuki, K. M., Langgat, J., & Fabeil, N. F. (2014). Factors influencing SMEs adoption of social media marketing. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences148, 119-126.

Eshraghi, A. (2015). Revisiting Information Systems Research in Nonprofit Context:(Non-) Adoption 2.0 in a Small Voluntary Club. Handbook of Research on Integrating Social Media into Strategic Marketing, 271-286.

Krueger, J. C., & Haytko, D. L. (2015). Nonprofit adaptation to Web 2.0 and digital marketing strategies. Journal of Technology Research6, 1.

Madden, H. (2008). Assessing the impact of organisational culture when introducing Web. 2.0 technologies into a non-profit organisation for knowledge managment.

Milla, A., Mataruna, L., & Ristic, M. R. (2018). Adopting social Media for Nonprofits as a Main marketing tool: Analysis of a youth non-profit organization. Int J Appl Bus Econ Res22(2).

Nah, S., & Saxton, G. D. (2013). Modeling the adoption and use of social media by nonprofit organizations. New media & society15(2), 294-313.

Pífano, S., Isaias, P., & Miranda, P. (2021). Successful implementation of web 2.0 in non-profit organisations: a case study. In Handbook of Research on User Experience in Web 2.0 Technologies and Its Impact on Universities and Businesses (pp. 353-369). IGI Global.

Young, J. A. (2017). Facebook, Twitter, and blogs: The adoption and utilization of social media in nonprofit human service organizations. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance41(1), 44-57.

Waters, R. D. (2010). The use of social media by nonprofit organizations: An examination from the diffusion of innovations perspective. In Social computing: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (pp. 1420-1432). IGI Global.

(c) 2001-2024 by John G. McNutt. All Rights Reserved. Limited Permission is Granted for Reproduction for Non-Commercial Educational Purposes provided that the material remain in its original form and proper credit is extended.   Disclaimer:he content of all linked sites are beyond my control and I assume no responsibility for their content. Photos and artwork from the Microsoft Clip Art Gallery and my collection; Revised 01/15/24