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General Advocacy


Advocacy Organizations 

Alvarado, A.R. (2000). State level policy : growing role for nonprofit associations.  Nonprofit Quarterly 7, 22-25.

Bass, G., Arons, D. Guinane, K. & Carter, M. (2007). Seen but not heard: Strengthening nonprofit advocacy. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute.

Boisture, R. & Sellers, E. (1998). Power, politics, and nonprofits: a primer on tax-exempt organizations, campaign finance, and the law. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.

Boris, E.T. &  Mosher-Williams, R. (1998). Nonprofit advocacy organizations: assessing the definitions, classifications, and data. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27 (4), 488-506.

Bremner, R.H. (1989). Encouraging advocacy for the underserved: The case of children. In Hodgkinson, V. (Ed.), The future of the nonprofit sector (pp. 203-218). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Caldeira, G., Hojnacki, M. & Wright, J.R. (2000). The lobbying activities of organized interests in federal judicial nominations. The Journal of Politics 62 (1), 51.

Child, C.D. & Gronbjerg, K. A. (2007). Nonprofit advocacy organizations: Their characteristics and activities. Social science quarterly. 88(1), 259-281.

Coen, D. (1999). The impact of U.S. lobbying practice on the European business-government relationship. California Management Review 41 (4), 27.

Colby, I.C. & Buffum, W.E. (1998). Social workers and PACs: an examination of National Association of Social Workers P.A.C.E. committees. Journal of Community Practice 5 (4), 87.

Connors, F.J. (1999). Complying with the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995. The Practical Lawyer 45 (7), 15.

Day, C.L. (1999). Grassroots involvement in interest group decision-making. American Politics Quarterly 27 (2), 216-235.

Denny, E., Pokela, J., Jackson, J.R. & Matava, M.A. (1989). Influencing child welfare policy: assessing the opinion of legislators. Child Welfare 68 (3), 275-287.

Diaz-Albertini, J. (1993). Nonprofit advocacy in weakly institutionalized political systems : the case of NGDOs in Lima, Peru. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 22, 317-337.

Faucheux, R. (1995). The grassroots explosion. Campaigns and Elections 16 (1), 20-25, 53-67.

Gibbelman, M. & Kraft, S. (1996). Advocacy as a core agency program: planning considerations for voluntary human services agencies. Administration in Social Work 20 (4), 43-59.

Haynes, K. & Mickelson, J. (2003). Affecting Change: Social Workers in the Political Arena (5th edition). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Heitshusen, V. (2000). Interest group lobbying and U.S. House decentralization: linking informational focus to committee hearing appearances. Political Research Quarterly 53 (1).

Hoefer, R. (1998). Human services interest groups in four states: lessons for effective advocacy. Presentation at the 27th Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Seattle, WA. November 5-7.

Hoefer, R. (1999). The social work and politics initiative: a model for increasing political content in social work education. Journal of Community Practice 6 (3), 71.

Hoefer, R. (2000). Making a difference: human service interest group influence on social welfare program regulations. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 27 (3).

Hoefer, R. (2000). Human services interest groups in four states: lessons for effective advocacy. Journal of Community Practice 7 (4), 77-94.

Hoefer, R. (1999). Protection, prizes or patrons? Explaining the origins and maintenance of human services interest groups. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 26 (4), 115-136.

Laws, G. (1997). Voluntary organizations and advocacy: the case of housing for older Americans. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 26 (3), 307-335.

Libby, P.  (2011). The Lobbying strategy handbook. Thousand Oak: Sage Publications.

Shaffer, M.B. (1996). The internal dynamics of environmental organizations: movement interest groups, communal advocacy groups, and the policy process. Policy Studies Review 14, 183.

Skocpol, T. (1999). Associations without members. American Prospect 10 (45).

Overviews and Issues

Alvarado, A.R. (2000). State level policy : growing role for nonprofit associations. Nonprofit Quarterly 7, 22-25.

Amidei, N. (1987). The new activism picks up steam. Public Welfare 45 (3), 21-26.

Amidei, N. (1992). Advocacy: thinking about policy advocacy. Voluntary Action Leadership, 12- 13.

Arches, J.L. (1997). Burnout and social action. Journal of Progressive Human Services 8 (2), 51-62.

Arterton, F.C. (1997). Can politics be taught? Campaigns and Elections 18 (1), 53-54.

Arons, D. (2000). Guarding our voice: emerging issues on the advocacy horizon. Nonprofit Quarterly 7, 37-39.

Arons, D. (2000).The meaning and actions of advocacy. Nonprofit Quarterly 7, 7-9.

Asher, T.R. (1995). Myth v. fact : foundation support of advocacy. Washington, DC: Alliance for Justice.

Avner, M. (2002). The lobbying and advocacy handbook for nonprofit organizations : shaping public policy at the state and local level. Saint Paul, MN: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation.

Bailey, A.L. (1991, September 10). Pioneering a new form of advocacy for children. Chronicle of Philanthropy 3, 33-34.

Bass, G., Arons, D. Guinane, K. & Carter, M. (2007). Seen but not heard: Strengthening nonprofit advocacy. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute.

Berry, J.M. (1977). Lobbying for the people. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Berry, J.M. (1999). New liberalism : the rising power of citizen groups. Washington, D.C: Brookings Institute.

Berry, J.M. & Arons, D. (2002). A Voice for nonprofits. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Birnbaum, J. & Murray, A. (1987). Showdown at Gucci gulch: lawmakers, lobbyists and the unlikely triumph of tax reform. New York: Random House.

Birnbaum, J. (1992). The lobbyists: how influence peddlers get their way in Washington. New York: Random House.

Bonk, K., Griggs, H. & Tynes, E. (1999). The Jossey-Bass guide to strategic communications for nonprofits: a step-by-step guide to working with the media to generate publicity, enhance fundraising, build membership, change public policy, handle crises, and more. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Boris, E.T. & Steuerle, C.E. (Eds). (1999). Nonprofits and government: collaboration and conflict.. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Callahan, J.J. (2004). The world of interest group advocacy: An Insider view. Generations. 28 (1), 36-40.

Capua, J.V. (1997). The new civic activism: public interest advocacy gives way to a new community activism. Philanthropy 11, 30-32.

Cohen, D., De la Vega, R. &  Watson, G. (2001). Advocacy for social justice: a global action and reflection guide. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.

Cohen, M.B. & Wagner, D. (1992). Acting on their own behalf: affiliation and political mobilization among homeless people. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 19 (4), 21-40.

Drew, E. (1997). Whatever it takes: the real struggle for political power in America. New York: Viking.

Drew, E. (1996). Showdown: The struggle between the Gingrich Congress and the Clinton White House. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Drew, E. (1995). On the edge: the Clinton presidency. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Drew, E. (1983). Politics and money: The new road to corruption. New York: McMillan.

Ezell, M. (2001).  Advocacy in the human services. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Figueira McDonough, J. (1993). Policy practice: the neglected side of social work intervention. Social Work 38 (2), 179-188.

Fisher, D. (2006). Activism, Inc. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Glenn, D. (2006, September 15). Scorching the grassroots? Chronicle of Higher Education.53 (4), 1

Greene, S.G. (1995, September 21). Renewing American democracy: foundations seek to reverse a loss of faith in the political process. Chronicle of Philanthropy 7 (1), 8-11.

Herman, J.L. (2001). Integrating political activism and a professional career. Smith College Studies in Social Work 72 (1), 11-14.

Jansson, B. (1994). Social policy: from theory to policy practice. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Jansson, B.S. (1994). Social welfare policy. In Reamer, F. (Ed.), The foundations of social work knowledge. New York: Columbia University Press.

Jansson, B.S. (1998). Becoming an effective policy advocate: from policy practice to social justice (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Jenkins, J.C. (1987). Non profit organizations and policy advocacy. In Powell, W.W. (Ed.), The nonprofit sector: a research handbook (pp. 296-320). New Haven: Yale University Press.

Johnson, H. & Broder, D. (1996). The system: the American way of politics at the breaking point. New York: Little, Brown, and Company. 

John, S. & Thompson, S. (2002). Lobbying in the 21st Century: Lobbying in 2010. Journal of public affairs. 3 (1), 9-13.

Kush, C. (2004). The One hour activist. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Lee, E.D. (1996). A new way to look at nonprofit advocacy. The Nonprofit Connection 3 (1), 1- 4.

Lewis, J.R. (1988). Training public administrators to work with legislatures. Public Productivity Review 11 (4), 101-107.

Jansson, B.S. & Dodd, S.J. (2002). Ethical activism: strategies for empowering medical social workers. Social Work in Health Care 36 (1), 11-28.

Kingdon, J. (1984). Agendas, alternatives and public policies. Boston: Little Brown.

Kollman, K. (1998). Inside lobbying: public opinion and interest group strategies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Lees-Marshment, J. (2003).Marketing good works: New trends in how interest groups recruit supporters.  Journal of public affairs. 3 (4), 358-370.

Lewis, N. (2003, April 3). Charities grapple with uncertainty as war unfolds. Chronicle of Philanthropy 15, 7-8, 10.

Marlowe, H. (1994). How Congress views nonprofitsóand what you can do about it. Nonprofit World 12, 27-33.

Marsh, D.S., Daniels, M.H. & Putnam, K. (2003). Leadership for policy change. Strengthening communities of color through leadership development. San Francisco: Policy Link.

Mary, N.L. (2001). Political activism of social work educators. Journal of Community Practice 9 (4), 1-20.

McDonough, J.E. (2000). Experiencing politics: a legislatorís stories of government and health care. Berkeley: University of California Press.

McNutt, J.G. (2011). Is Social Work Advocacy Worth the Cost? Issues and Barriers for an Economic Analysis of Social Work Political Practice. Research in Social Work practice. 21 (4), 397-403.

Mickelson, J. (1995). Advocacy. In Edwards, R. & Hopps, J. (Eds.), The encyclopedia of social work (15th Ed.). Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Olsen, M. (1965). The Logic of collective action: Public goods and the theory of groups.,Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Palatiello, J.M. (1994). Empowering members to work with lawmakers. Association Management 46 (2), 46-49, 56.

Pawlak, E., & Flynn, J. (1990). Executive directors' political activity. Social Work, 35, 307-312.

Pearlmutter, S. (2002). Achieving political practice: integrating individual need and social action. Journal of Progressive Human Services 13 (1), 31-51.

Pidgeon, W.P. (Ed). (2001). The legislative labyrinth: a map for not-for-profits. New York, NY: John & Wiley Sons.

Randon, A. & Perri. (1994). Constraining campaigning: the legal treatment of nonprofit policy advocacy across twenty-four countries. Voluntas 5, 27-58.

Rees, S. (1999). Strategic choices for nonprofit advocates. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 28 (1), 65-73.

Reeser, L.C. (1992). Professional role orientation and social activism. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 19 (2), 79-94.

Reid, E.J. (Ed.). (2000). Nonprofit advocacy in the policy process: structuring the inquiry into advocacy. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Reid, E.J. (2002). Exploring organizations and advocacy: governance and accountability, issue 2. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Reisch, M. (1993). The social worker in politics as a multi-role group practitioner. Social Work with Groups 16 (1/2), 187.

Richan, W.C. (1991). Lobbying for social change. New York: Haworth.

Romano, G. (1998). Advocates with impact. Association Management 50 (3), 36-43.

Rose, S. J. (1999). Social workers as municipal legislators: potholes, garbage and social activism. Journal of Community Practice 6 (4).

Seguin, C., Pekketier, L.G. & Hunsley, J. (1998). Towards a model of environmental activism. Environment and Behavior 30 (5), 628-653.

Schneider, R.L. & Lester, L. (2001). Social work advocacy: a new framework for action.. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Sherman, R.P. (1997). Working with the enemy. Association Management 49 (9), 58-63.

Skocpol, T. (2003). Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press.

Smith, H. (1988). The power game: how Washington works. New York: Random House.

Thurber, J. & Nelson, C.J. (2000). Campaign warriors: Political consultants in elections. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Thompson, N. (2002). Social movements, social justice and social work.. British Journal of Social Work 32 (6), 711-722.

Tichenor, D.J. & Harris, R.A. (2005). The development of Interest group politics in America. Annual review of political science. 8, 251-270.

Weed, F.J. (1997). The framing of political advocacy and service responses in the crime victim rights movement. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 24 (3), 43-61.

Child Advocacy 

Andrews, A.B. (1998). An exploratory study of political attitudes and acts among child and family services workers. Children and Youth Services Review 20 (5), 435-461. 

Andrews, A. B., McLeese, D. G. & Curran, S. (1995). The impact of a media campaign on public action to help maltreated children in addictive families. Child Abuse and Neglect 19, 921.

Bailey, A.H. (1991, September 10). Pioneering a new form of advocacy for children. Chronicle of Philanthropy 3, 33-34.

Berner, M., & Smith, S. (2004). The state of the states: A review of state requirements for citizen participation in the local government budget process. State and Local Government Review, 36(2), 140-150.

Boylan, J. & Lebacq, M. (2000). Rights for wronged children: training child welfare professionals in advocacy and childrenís rights. Child Abuse Review 9 (6), 444-447.

Boylan, J., Dalrymple, J. & Ing, P. (2000). Letís do it! Advocacy, young people and social work education. Social Work Education 19, (6), 553-563.

Bremner, R.H. (1989). Encouraging advocacy for the underserved: the case of children. In Hodgkinson, V. (Ed). The future of the nonprofit sector. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 203- 218.

Dalrymple, J. (2003). Professional advocacy as a force for resistance in child welfare.  British journal of social work. 33 (8), 1043-1062.

DeVita, C.J. & Mosher-Williams, R. (Eds.) (2001). Who speaks for Americaís children?. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Dundon, B. L. (1999-2000). My voice: an advocacy approach to service learning. Educational Leadership 57 (4), 34-37.

Gormley, W.T. & Cymrot, H. (2004). The Strategic choices of child advocacy groups.  Paper presented at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL April 15.

Gnaerig, B. & MacCormack, C. F. (1999). The challenges of globalization: save the children.  Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 28 (4), 140-146.

Hick, S. & Halpin, E. (2001). Childrenís rights and the Internet. forthcoming in the Annuals

Imig, D. (1996). Advocacy by proxy: the childrenís lobby in American politics. Journal on Children and Poverty 2, 31-53.

Janz, J., Higginbotham, K.. & Marcel, K. (2000). Grassroots in cyberspace. Exceptional parent magazine 30 (11), 57-60..  

Krehely, J. and Montilla, M. (2001). Equitably wired? Assessing e-advocacy techniques of national child advocacy organizations. In The Impact of Information Technology on Civil Society: Working Papers from the Independent Sectorís 2001 Spring Research Forum. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.

Lennett, J.& Colten, M.E. (n.d.). A winning alliance: collaboration of advocates and researchers on the Massachusetts mothers survey. Violence Against Women 5 (10). 1118-1139.

Mayall, B. (2000). The sociology of childhood in relation to childrenís rights. The International Journal of Childrenís Rights 8 (3), 243-259.

McNutt, J.G.  &  Barlow, J. (2012).  A Longitudinal Study of Political Technology Use by Nonprofit Child Advocacy Organizations. In Manoharan, A.& Holtzer, M.  (eds.) E-Governance and Civic Engagement: Factors and Determinants of E-Democracy. Harrisburg: IGI Books.

McNutt, J.G. & Boland, K.M. (2001). You canít get there from here: a study of the adoption of electronic advocacy techniques. Presentation at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, November 29 - December 2, Miami, FL.

McNutt, J.G., Keaney, W.F., Crawford, P., Schubert, L. & Sullivan, C. (2001). Going on-line for children: a national study of electronic advocacy by non-profit child advocacy agencies In The Impact of Information Technology on Civil Society: Working Papers from the Independent Sectorís 2001 Spring Research Forum. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.

McNutt, J.G., Rowland, R., Keaney, W., Howard, W., Bartron, J., Crawford, P., Garnes, E. & Stricker, A. (2002). Nonprofit on-line advocacy for childrenís causes: a comparison of national and sub national patterns. Presentation at the 6th International Research Symposium on Public Management (IRSPM VI). University of Edinburgh, Scotland, April 8-10.

Morgan, D.R. & Kickham, K. (2000). Children in poverty: do state policies matter?.
Social Science Quarterly 82 (3), 478-493.

Nix, M. (2000). State employees versus the religious right: a case study of grassroots lobbying for children. Early Childhood Education Journal 28 (2), 91-95.

Reid, L.W. (1999). The status of children in the United States: state-level determinants of social spending on youth. Sociological Spectrum 19 (3), 299-323.

Roberts, A. & Herrerias, C. (2000). Building political muscle for kids: a case study of child advocacy in Oklahoma. Free inquiry in critical sociology 28 (2), 95-104.

Scott, R.W., Deschenes, S.,Hopkins, K. Newman, A. & McLaughlin, M. (2004). Advocacy organizations and the field of child and youth services: Indicators and dynamics of early stages of field structuralization.  Paper presented at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, November 18-21.

Sutton, J.R. (1990). Bureaucrats and enterpreneurs: institutional responses to deviant children in the United States, 1890-1920s.  American Journal of Sociology 95 (6), 1367-1400.

Willer, B. (1983). Expanding our child advocacy efforts: NAEYC forms a public policy network for children. Young Children 38 (6), 71-74.

Environmental Advocacy

Bosso, C. J. (2005).Environment, Inc. From the grassroots to the beltway. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.

Bosso, C.J & Guber,D.L. (2006). Maintaining Presence: Environmental Advocacy and the Permanent Campaign, in Norman Vig and Michael Kraft, eds., Environmental Policy: New Directions for the 21st Century.  (6th edition). Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, pp. 78-99.

Brick, P. & Cawley, R. (2008). Producing political climate change: the hidden life of US environmentalism. Environmental Politics, 17, (2), 200 - 218.

Bullard, R. ( ed) (1994). Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color  San Francisco: Sierra Club Books

Cole, L. & Foster, S (2000). From the Ground Up: Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement. New York: New York University Press

Dalton, R. J., Recchia, S. & Rohrschneider, R. (2003). The Environmental movement and the modes of political action. Comparative political studies, 36 (7), 743-771.

Dreiling, M. & Wolf, B. (2001). Environmental movement organizations and political strategies. Organization and environment, 14 (1), 34-54.

Folk, E. (1991). Public Participation in the Superfund Cleanup Process. Ecology Law Quarterly  18, 173-221.

Foreman, Jr.,C. (1998).  The Promise and Peril of Environmental Justice Washington, DC: Brookings.

Grossman, M. (2006). Environmental advocacy in Washington: A comparison with other Interest groups. Environmental politics. 15 (4), 628-638.

Gruber, D. L. (2003). The Grassroots of a Green Revolution: Polling America on the Environment. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hoff, M. &  McNutt, J.G. (eds.) (1994). The Global Environmental Crisis: Implications for Social Welfare and Social Work. Aldershot: Avebury.

Hoff, M.D.  & McNutt, J.G.  (2008) Social Policy, Health and the Physical Environment  [pp 295-311] In Midgley, J. Tracy, M. & Livermore, M. (eds.) The Handbook of social policy. [Second Edition] Beverly Hills: Sage.

John, D. (1994).  Civic environmentalism: Alternatives to regulation in states and communities.  Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.

Kutner, L.A. (2000). Environmental activism and the Internet. Electronic green journal. (12), np

Lindstroth, T. & Bell, R. (2007). Local action: The New paradigm in climate change policy.  Burlington: University of Vermont Press.

Lubell, M. (2002). Environmental Activism as Collective Action. Environment and Behavior, 34, 431  454.

Malone, P (2006). Environmental education researchers as environmental activists. Environmental Education Research, 12, (3-4), 375-389

McFarlane, B. L & Hunt, L.M.  (2006). Environmental Activism in the Forest Sector: Social Psychological, Social-Cultural, and Contextual Effects Environment and Behavior,  38,  266 - 285.

McNutt, J.G. (2007) Social Welfare Policy and the Physical Environment: Internet Resources for Research  and Policymaking. Journal of Policy Practice 6 (2), 83-87.

McNutt, J.G. & Flanagan, M. (2007). Social Networking Choices and Environmental Advocacy Organizations: Implications for Global Social Justice. Paper read at the 2007 Meeting of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Atlanta, GA.

Pickerill, J. (2003). Cyberprotest: Environmental activism online. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Shabecoff, P. (1993). A Fierce Green Fire: The American Environmental Movement. New York: Hill and Wang.

Shaffer, M.B. (1996). The internal dynamics of environmental organizations: movement interest groups, communal advocacy groups, and the policy process. Policy Studies Review 14, 183.

Shulman, S. W., Katz, J., Quinn, C. & Srivastava, P. (2005). Empowering environmentally burden communities in the US: A Primer on the emerging role of Information technology. Local environment. 10 (5), 501-512.

Straugham, B. & Pollak, T. (2008).The Broader movement:: Nonprofit environmental and conservation organizations, 1978-2005.  Washington. DC : The Urban Institute.

Electoral Advocacy

Bennett, W.L. & Xenos, M. (2004). Young voters and the web of politics.  CIRCLE Working Paper #20..College Park: CIRCLE

Bike, W. (1998). Winning political campaigns. Juneau: Denali Press 

Bimber, B. & Davis, R.  (2003). Campaigning On-line:  The Internet in US Elections.  New York: Oxford University Press

Cantor, J.E. (2007). Campaign finance: An Overview. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. RL33580

Colby, I.C. & Buffum, W.E. (1998). Social workers and PACs: an examination of National Association of Social Workers P.A.C.E. committees. Journal of Community Practice 5 (4), 87.

Gerber, A.S. (2004). Does campaign strategy work? American behavioral scientist. 47 (5), 541-574.

Green, D. P. & Gerber, A.S. (2004).  Get out the vote:  How to increase voter turnout.  Washington, DC:  Brookings.

Green, D.P. & Smith, J. P. (2003). The Professionalization of campaigns and the secret history of collective action problems. Journal of theoretical politics. 15(3), 321-339

Grossman, L. (2004). What your party knows about you.  Time 164 (16), 38

Hamilton, D. & Fauri, D. (2001). Social workersí political participation: strengthening the political confidence of social work students. Journal of Social Work Education. 37 (2), 321-332.

Hogan, R.E. (1997). Voter contact techniques in state legislative campaigns. Legislative Studies Quarterly 22 (4), 551-571.

Levine, P. & Lopez, M.H. (2005). What we should know about the effectiveness of campaigns and don't. Annuals. 601. 180-191.

Minch, H., Haddow, K & Saponara, L. (eds)(2004). Loud and clear in an election year. San Francisco: The Spin Project.

Parker, M., & Sherraden, M. (1992). Electoral participation of social workers. New England Journal of Human Services, 11, 23-28.

Rockett, L.R.& Gershun, M.L. (2002). ©(3)s ©(4)s & PACs: a primer on political activities and tax-exempt organizations. Port Chester, NY: ProChoice Resource Center.

Salcido, R.M. (1984). Social work practice in political campaigns. Social Work. (2), 189-191.

Selnow, G.W. (1994). High-tech campaigns: computer technology in political communications. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Selnow, G.W. (1998). Electronic whistle stops: the impact of the Internet on American politics. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Shea, D.M. & Burton, M.J (2001).Campaign craft. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Strachan, J. C. (2003). High tech grass roots:  The Professionalization of local elections. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Shaw, C. (2000). The Campaign manager. [Second Edition]. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Thurber, J. & Nelson, C.J. (2000). Campaign warriors: Political consultants in elections. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Usher, D. & Mellman, M. (2004). Advances in polling: Lifestyle cluster targeting.  Campaigns and elections, 25 (3), 36-38.

Research

Arons, D.F. (2000, January). Nonprofit management and advocacy: examining barriers to democracy. Presentation at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Arlington, VA.

Bass, G., Arons, D. Guinane, K. & Carter, M. (2007). Seen but not heard: Strengthening nonprofit advocacy. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute..

Belton, K.B. (2001). Assessing your advocacy efforts. Association Management 53, 49-52.

Birnbaum, J.H. (1997, December 8). The power 25. Fortune, 136 (11), 144-150.

Boris, E.T. &  Mosher-Williams, R. (1998). Nonprofit advocacy organizations: assessing the definitions, classifications, and data. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27 (4), 488-506.

Byers, K. & Stone G. (1999). Roots of activism: a qualitative study of BSW students. The Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work 5 (1), 1-14.

Caldeira, G., Hojnacki, M. & Wright, J.R.. (2000). The lobbying activities of organized interests in federal judicial nominations. The Journal of Politics 62 (1), 51.

Cheever, K.A. (2001). Fair housing advocacy groups: litigation as a source of nonprofit funding. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 30, 298-320.

Coen, D. (1999). The impact of U.S. lobbying practice on the European business-government relationship. California Management Review 41 (4), 27.

Colby, I.C. & Buffum, W.E. (1998). Social workers and PACs: an examination of National Association of Social Workers P.A.C.E. committees. Journal of Community Practice 5 (4), 87.

Cox, J.R. & McCloskey, M. (1996). Advocacy and the Istook amendment: efforts to restrict the civic speech of nonprofit organizations in the 104th Congress.  Journal of Applied Communication Research 24, 273.

Day, C.L. (1999). Grassroots involvement in interest group decision-making. American Politics Quarterly 27 (2), 216-235.

Denny, E., Pokela, J., Jackson, J.R.. & Matava, M.A. (1989). Influencing child welfare policy: assessing the opinion of legislators. Child Welfare 68 (3), 275-287.

Diaz-Albertini, J. (1993). Nonprofit advocacy in weakly institutionalized political systems: the case of NGOs in Lima, Peru. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 22, 317-337.

Domanski, M.D. (1998). Prototypes of social work political participation: an empirical model. Social Work 43 (2), 156-167.

Donaldson, L.P. & Shields, J. (2009). Development of the policy advocacy behavior scale: Initial reliability and validity, Research on Social Work Practice, 19, 83-92.

Donaldson, L. P. (2008). Developing a progressive advocacy program within a human services agency, Administration in Social Work, 32, (3), 25-47.


Donaldson, L. P.  (2007). Advocacy by nonprofit human services: Organizational factors as correlates to advocacy behavior. Journal of Community Practice, 15, (3), 139-158

Epstein, I. (1981). Advocates on advocacy: an exploratory study. Social Work Research and Abstracts 17 (1), 5-12.

Ezell, M. (1994). Advocacy practice of social workers. Families in Society 75 (1), 36-46.

Ezell, M. (1991). Administrators as advocates. Administration in Social Work 15 (4), 1-18.

Ezell, M. (1993). The political activity of social workers: a post-Reagan update. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 20 (4), 81-97.

Ezell, M. (2001).  Advocacy in the human services. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Fox, J. (2001). Vertically integrated policy monitoring: a tool for civil society policy advocacy.  Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 30 (3), 616-627.

Gray, V. & Lowery, D. (2000). Where do policy ideas come from? A study of Minnesota legislators and staffers. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 10 (3), 573-597.

Gray, V. & Lowery, D. (1998). The density of state public interest communities: do regional variables matter? Publis 28 (2), 61.

Hamilton, D. & Fauri, D. (2001). Social workersí political participation: strengthening the political confidence of social work students. Journal of Social Work Education. 37 (2), 321-332.

Handy, F. (2001). Advocacy by environmental nonprofit organizations: an optimal strategy for addressing environmental problems?. International Journal of Social Economics 28 (8), 648-666.

Hardina, D. (1995). Do Canadian social workers practice advocacy?. Journal of Community Practice 2 (3), 97-121.

Heitshusen, V. (2000). Interest group lobbying and U.S. House decentralization: linking informational focus to committee hearing appearances. Political Research Quarterly 53 (1).

Hoefer, R. (1998). Human services interest groups in four states: lessons for effective advocacy. Presentation at the 27th Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Seattle, WA. November 5-7.

Hoefer, R. (2000). Making a difference: human service interest group influence on social welfare program regulations. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 27 (3).

Hoefer, R. (2000). Human services interest groups in four states: lessons for effective advocacy. Journal of Community Practice 7 (4), 77-94.

Hoefer, R. (1999). Protection, prizes or patrons? Explaining the origins and maintenance of human services interest groups. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 26 (4), 115- 136.

Hogan, R.E. (1997). Voter contact techniques in state legislative campaigns. Legislative Studies Quarterly 22 (4), 551-571.

Hojnacki, M. & Kimball, D.C. (1999). The who and how of organizationsí lobbying strategies in committee. The Journal of Politics 61 (4).

Hudson, A. (2002). Advocacy by UK-based development NGOs.  Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 31 (3), 402-418.

Imig, D. (1996). Advocacy by proxy: the childrenís lobby in American politics. Journal on Children and Poverty 2, 31-53.

Jacobs, R. & Sobieraj.S. (2007). Narrative and legitimacy: U. S. Congressional Debates about the nonprofit sector.  Sociological theory. 25 (1) 1-25. 

Jordan, L. & Van Tuijl, P. (2000). Political responsibility in transnational NGO advocacy.  World Development 28 (12), 2051-2065.

Kalb, D. (1998). Knowledge, perceptions and organizational behavior pertaining to regulations regarding lobbying by nonprofit organizations. San Francisco, CA: University of San Francisco.

Kaufman, R. (2001). Coalition activity of social change organizations in a public campaign: the influence of motives, resources and processes on levels of activity. Journal of Community Practice 9 (4), 21-42.

Lune, H. (2002). Weathering the storm: nonprofit organization survival strategies in a hostile climate. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 31, 463-483.

Minkoff, D.C. (2002). The emergence of hybrid organizational forms: combining identity-based service provision and political action. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly  31 (3), 377-401.

Micheletti, M. & Stolle, D.  (2007). Mobilizing Consumers to Take Responsibility for Global Social Justice
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,(611), 157 - 175.

Mundy, K. & Murphy, L. (2001). Transnational advocacy, global civil society? Emerging evidence from the field of education. Comparative Education Review 45 (1), 85-126.

Nonprofit Sector Strategy Group. (2000). The nonprofit contribution to civic participation and advocacy. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.

Pidgeon, W.P., Jr. (Ed.). (2001). The legislative labyrinth : a map for not-for-profits. New York: John & Wiley Sons.

Rees, S. (1997, December). Effective non-profit advocacy. Presentation at the 26th Annual Conference of the Association for Research on Non-Profit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Indianapolis, IN.

Rees, S. (1998). Effective non-profit advocacy.Washington, DC: Aspen Institute/Non-profit Sector Research Fund. Available at
http://www.aspeninst.org/dir/polpro/NSRF/enpatoc.html

Rees, S. (1999). Strategic choices for nonprofit advocates. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 28 (1), 65-73.

Rockett, L.R.& Gershun, M.L. (2002). ©(3)s ©(4)s & PACs: a primer on political activities and tax-exempt organizations. Port Chester, NY: ProChoice Resource Center.

Saidel, J.R. & Harlan, S.L. (1998). Contracting and patterns of nonprofit governance. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 8 (3), 243-259.

Saidel, J.R. (1998a). Expanding the governance construct: functions and contributions of nonprofit advisory groups. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 27 (4), 421-436.

Saidel, J.R. (1994). Interdependence between nonprofit organizations and government agencies. In Perry, J. (Ed.), Research in Public Administration 3. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Schultz, J. (2002). The Democracy ownerís manual. a practical guide to changing the world. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Shaffer, M.B. (1996). The internal dynamics of environmental organizations: movement interest groups, communal advocacy groups, and the policy process. Policy Studies Review 14, 183.

Skocpol, T. (1999). Associations without members. American Prospect 10 (45).

Themba, M.N. (1999). The art of media advocacy. Grassroots Fundraising Journal 18, 6-9.

Methods, Legal Issues and Techniques

Faucheux, R. (1999). Hitting the bullís eye (winning elections by targeting voters). Campaigns and Elections 20 (6), 20-25.

Geake, R.R. (1995). Practical tips for getting involved in politics. Professional Psychology 26 (5), 463-464.

Haynes, K.S. & Mickelson, J.S. (2000). Affecting change (4th ed.). Needham: Allyn & Bacon.

Hopkins, B.R. (1992). Charity, advocacy and the law. New York: Wiley.

Klein, K. (1997).The final word on lobbying and political activity: itís legal...except when itís not. Grassroots Fundraising Journal 16, 11-12.

Kun, K.E. & Muir, E. (1997). Influence on state legislators: drive by deliveries. Public Health Reports 112, 277-283.

Layton, T. (1997). Welfare for lobbyists or nonprofit gag rule: can Congress limit a federal grant receipientís use of provate fiunds for political advocacy. Syracuse Law Review 47 (3), 1065-1091.

Schaller, T. (2010). Coffee Party Founder, Disappointed in OFA, Charts New Course for Grassroots Activism. Five Thirty Eight. Retrieved from http://www.fivethirtyeight.com/search/label/tea%20parties on March 26, 2010

Smucker, R. (1991). The nonprofit lobbying guide: advocating your causeóand getting results. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Smucker, R. (1999). The nonprofit lobbying guide (2nd ed.). Washington:, DC: Independent Sector.

Smucker, R. (1994). Non-profit lobbying. In Herman, R. (Ed.), The Jossey Bass handbook of nonprofit leadership and management (pp. 208-226). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Sparks, J.D. (1997). Lobbying, advocacy and nonprofit boards. Washington, DC: National Center for Nonprofit Boards.

Themba, M.N. (1999). The art of media advocacy. Grassroots Fundraising Journal 18, 6-9.

Vernick, J.S. (1999). Lobbying and advocacy for the publicís health: what are the limits for nonprofit organizations? American Journal of Public Health 89 (9), 1425.

Walls, D. (1993). The activistís almanac : the concerned citizenís guide to the leading advocacy organizations in America. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Young, D.R. (1992). Organizing principles for international advocacy associations. Voluntas 3, 1-28.

Zakocs, R.C. & Earp, J.L. (2003). Explaining variation in gun control policy advocacy tactics among local organizations. Health education and behavior. 30 (3), 360-74.

Tea Party

Cohen, R. (2010, August 12). The Cohen Report | The Starfish and the Tea Party. Nonprofit quarterly.  Retrieved from http://www.nonprofitquarterly.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3866%3Athe-cohen-report-the-starfish-and-the-tea-party&Itemid=991

Cohen, R. (2010, September 15). The Cohen Report | The Starfish and the Tea Party, Part II Nonprofit quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.nonprofitquarterly.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5691:the-cohen-report-the-starfish-and-the-tea-party-part-ii&catid=149:rick-cohen&Itemid=991

Cohen, R. (2010; October 21). The Cohen Report | The Starfish and the Tea Party, Part III Nonprofit quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.nonprofitquarterly.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6666:the-cohen-report-the-starfish-and-the-tea-party-part-iii&catid=149:rick-cohen&Itemid=991.

Gardner, A. (2010, October 24). Gauging the scope of the tea party movement in America. Washington Post.  Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/23/AR2010102304000_pf.html

Gardener, A. (2010; September 21). Tea Party picking up steam nationwide. Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/20/AR2010092006163.html

Greenberg, S.B. Carville, J., Gerstein, J. Craighill, P.M. & Monninger, K. (2010). Special Report on the Tea Party Movement. Washington, DC: Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Retrieved from: http://www.gqrr.com/index.php?ID=2475

Jonnson,P. (2010, February 6) As counter-media fuels tea party movement, main stream media catches on. Christian science monitor. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2010/0206/As-counter-media-fuels-tea-party-movement-main-stream-media-catches-on

Klimp, E. (2010). The Tea Party Movement: Leftist attacks fail to stop its growing influence. Capital Research Center Organizational Trends. September.  1-5.

Lepore, J. (2010). The Whites of Their Eyes: The Tea Party's Revolution and the Battle over American History. Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press.

Marcuse, P. (2010).  The need for critical theory in everyday life:  Why the Tea Parties have popular support.  City. 14 (4), 355-369.

McNutt, J.G., Curtis, K. OBoyle, T.& Fox, S. (2010). Coffee or Tea? An Examination of On-line Organizing Techniques of the Tea Party and Coffee Party Movements. Presented at  ARNOVA's 2010 Conference in Alexandria, VA, November 18-20, 2010  

Rauch, J. (2010, September 11). How tea party organizes without leaders. National journal. Retrieved from www.nationaljournal.com.

Rasmussen, S & Schoen, D. (2010). Mad As Hell: How the Tea Party Movement Is Fundamentally Remaking Our Two-Party System. New York: HarperCollins.

Rich, F. (2010, August 28). The Billionaires Bankrolling the tea party. New York Times. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com

Sarno, D. (2009,February 27) Anti-stimulus tea parties light up Twitter, YouTube, Flickr and social media. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/technology/2009/02/anti-stimulus-t.html

Schaller, T. (2010). Coffee Party Founder, Disappointed in OFA, Charts New Course for Grassroots Activism. Five Thirty Eight. Retrieved from http://www.fivethirtyeight.com/search/label/tea%20parties

Zerike, K.  (2010). Boiling mad: Inside Tea Party America. New York: Times Books.

 

 


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