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Other Issues 


Allen, J.L. (1998, May 22). Astroturf yields fake grassroots activity. National Catholic Reporter 34 (29), 4.

Austin, A. (2002). Advancing accumulation and managing its discontents: The US Antienvironmental counter movement. Sociological spectrum. 22: 71-105.

Beder, S. (1998). Public relations’ role in manufacturing artificial grassroots coalitions. Public Relations Quarterly 43 (2), 20-24.

Deal, C. & Doroshow, J. (2003). Corporate Astroturf and Civil Justice. Multinational monitor, March, 17-22.

Holmes, P. (1998). Who’s poisoning the grassroots? Reputation Magazine.  Available at http://www.prcentral.com/mn_cover_july98.htm

Howard, P.N. & Milstein, T.J. (2003).Spiders, spam and spyware. New Media and the market for political information. In Consalvo, M. (ed) Internet studies 1.0. New York: Peter Lang.

Howard, P.N. (2003). Digitizing the social contract: Producing American political culture in the age of new media. Communications review. 6 (3), 213—245.

Lyon. T.P. & Maxwell, J.W. (2004). Astroturf: Interest group lobbying and corporate strategy.  Journal of economics and management strategy. 13, (4), 561-597.

Mattingly, J.E. (2006).Radar screens, Astroturf and dirty work: A qualitative exploration of structure and process in corporate political action. Business & Society Review 111(2), 191-221.

McNutt, J.G. & Boland, K.M.* (2007). Astroturf, technology and the Future of Community Mobilization: Implications for Nonprofit Theory. Journal of sociology and social welfare, 34 (3), 165-179.

Sanchez, S. (1996). How the west was won: Astroturf lobbying and the wise use movement. American Prospect. (25), 337-43.

Savage, J.A. (1995). Astroturf lobbying replaces grassroots organizing. Business and Society Review (95), 8-10.

Stauber, J.C. & Rampton, S. (1995). "Democracy" for hire: public relations and environmental movements. The Ecologist 25 (5), 173-180.

Geographic Information Systems  Also See

Benhart, J. (2000). An approach to teaching applied GIS: implementation for local organizations. Journal of Geography 9, 245-252.

Barndt, M. (1998). Public participation GIS - barriers to implementation. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 25 (2), 105-112.

Barrett, M,  Sahay, S. &  Walsham, G.. (2001). Information Technology and Social Transformation: GIS for Forestry Management in India. The Information Society,  17,(1), 5-20.

Craig, W.J., Harris, T.M., & Weiner, D. (2002). Community participation and geographic information systems. London: Taylor & Francis.

Davis, D.E. (1999). GIS for everyone. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Ellwood, S. and Leitner, H. (1998). GIS and community-based planning: exploring the diversity of neighborhood perspectives and needs. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 25 (2), 77.

Greene, R. (2001). Open access: GIS in e-government. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Greene, R.W. (2000). GIS in public policy. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Harris, T. (1998). Empowerment, marginalization and "community-integrated" GIS. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 25 (2), 67.

Hoefer, R.A., Hoefer, R. & Tobias, R.A. (1994). Geographic information systems and human services. Journal of Community-Practice 1 (3), 113-128.

Kellogg, W.A. (1999). Community-based organizations and neighborhood environmental problem solving: a framework for adoption of information technologies. Journal of Environmental Planning & Management 42 (4), 445-469.

Leitner, H., Elwood, S., McMaster, S., & McMaster, R. (2000). Modes of GIS provision and their appropriateness for neighborhood organizations: examples from Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. URISA Journal 12 (4), 45-58.

Queralt, M., & Witte, A.D. (1998). A map for you? Geographic Information Systems in the social services. Social Work 43 (5), 455-469.

Mitchell, A. (1997). Zeroing In: Geographic information systems at work in the community. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Neely, S.K. & McNutt, J.G. (2000, April). Using Geographic Information Systems in planning and administration. Presentation at the 2000 Massachusetts NASW Conference, Boston, MA.

Novotny, P. & Jacobs, R.H. (1997). Geographic information systems and the new landscape of political technologies. Social Sciences Computer Review 15 (3), 264-285.

Obermeryer, N.J. (1998). The evolution of public participation GIS. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 25 (2), 65.

Queralt, M. & Witte, A.D. (1998). A map for you? Geographic Information Systems in the social services. Social Work 43 (5), 455-469.

Schlossberg, M. (1998). Asset mapping and community development planning with GIS: a look at the heart of West Michigan United Way’s innovative approach. Presentation at the 27th Annual Meeting of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, Seattle, WA.

Spade, M. (1996). Mapping the needs of the poor. Clearinghouse Review, 138-145.

Talen, E. (1998). Visualizing fairness: equity maps for planners. Journal of the American Planning Association 64 (1), 22-38.

Talen, E. (2000). Bottom-up GIS: a new tool for individual and group expression in participatory planning. Journal of the American Planning Association 66 (3), 279-294.

Tompkins, P.L. and Southward, L.H. (1998). Geographic Information Systems (GIS): implications for promoting social and economic justice. Computers in Human Services 15 (2/3), 209-226.

Wright, D.J. (1997). Still hoping to turn that theoretical corner. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 87 (2), 373.

Electronic Fund Raising

(2002). A snapshot of Internet innovation: using e-philanthropy to expand volunteering, giving and community building. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.

Allen, N. (1997). Using e-mail for fundraising. Tech News. Available at http://www.uwnyc.org/8fundrai.htm#textstart

Allen, N. (2000). Fundraising on the Internet: using e-mail and the Web to acquire and cultivate donors. Grassroots Fundraising Journal 19, 3-5.

Allen, N., Warwick, M. & Stein, M. (Eds.). (1996). Fundraising on the Internet: recruiting and renewing donors online. Berkeley, CA: Strathmoor Press.

Balog, K. (2000, Spring). Internet fundraising: should your organization do it? Volunteer Leadership, 34-37.

Barber, P. (2001). Designing Web sites that feel like home. Advancing Philanthropy 8 (1), 32-35.

Causer, C. (2002, October 1). Online boundaries: cyber solicitation guidelines govern affiliates. Nonprofit Times 16, 21-22.

Couey, A. (1996). Fundraising over the Internet. Microtimes. Available at http://www.microtimes.com/158/fundraising.html

Dickey, M. (1997, August 7). Charities world wide wait. Chronicle of Philanthropy 10.

Donati, V.L. & Hardgrove, J.A. (2002). The importance of being e-conscious. Association Management 54 (6), 59-63.

Fundraising UK (1998). Examples of Internet fundraising. Available at http://www.fundraising.co.uk/examples.html

Grobman, G.M. & Grant, G.B. (1998). The non-profit Internet handbook. Harrisburg: White Hat Communications.

Grobman, G. & Grant, G. (2006).Fundraising online. Harrisburg: White Hat Communication

Hart, T.R. (2002). Ephilanthropy: using the Internet to build support. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 7, 353-60.

Hooper, P. & Stobart, S. (2003). Using third-party services to reduce the development cost and improve the effectiveness of charity websites. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 8, 328-36.

Johnston, M. (1998). The fundraiser’s guide to the Internet. New York: Wiley.

McNutt, J.G., Bartron, J. & Boland, K.M. (1999, November 4-6). An empirical study of electronic fundraising activity in a group of non-profits. Presentation at the 28th Annual meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Arlington, VA.

Mossberger, K., Tolbert, C.J. & Stansbury, M. (2003). Virtual Inequality: Beyond the digital divide. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Miller, L. (1999, May 4). Charitable giving takes a cyber turn. USA Today.  Available at http://www.usatoday.com/life/cyber/tech/ctf068.htm

Olsen, M., Keevers, M.L., Paul, J. & Covington, S. (2001). E-relationship development strategy for the nonprofit fundraising professional . International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 6, 364-373.

Parker, K. (1999). Charitable ventures: nonprofits look online for the next generation of donors. American Demographics 21 (12), 34.

Politics Online (1999). Study shows, "The age of political fundraising online has begun". Available at http://www.politicsonline.com/onlinefundraising/index.shtml

Reis, G.R. (2000, January). Fund raising on the Web: why having a dot-org Web site isn’t enough. Fund Raising Management 30 (11), 22.

Reis, G.R. (2000, February). New report says online charities aren’t leveraging power of the Web. Fund Raising Management 30 (12), 3.

Roufa, M. (1999). Can nonprofits really raise money on the Internet? Nonprofit World 17 (3), 10-12.

Strauss, D. (1996). Fundraising and the Information Superhighway. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising 11, 41-59.

Vargas, A. (2008, November 20). Obama Raised Half a Billion Online. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://voices.washingtonpost.com/the-trail/2008/11/20/obama_raised_half_a_billion_on.html on January 5, 2009.

Waldenmayer, C. (2002, Summer). A user’s guide to selecting fundraising software. Grantsmanship Center Magazine 47, 6-11.

Wallace, N. (2002, August 22). On-the-job goes online. Chronicle of Philanthropy 14, 19-21.

Warwick, Hart, T. & Allen, N. (Eds.). (2002).  Fundraising on the Internet: the ePhilanthropyFoundation.org’s guide to success online (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 

Zeff, R. (1996). The nonprofit guide to the Internet. New York: Wiley.

Internet Publishing and Web Page Development.  

Baker, T. (2001). Nonprofit Websites: cutting through the emaze. Atlanta, GA: Grizzard Direct Marketing.

Brooks, D.W. (1997). Web-teaching. New York: Plenum.

Clark, J. (2003). Understanding Web accessibility. Journal of Volunteer Administration 21 (1), 37-39.

Frenza, J.P. & Hoffman, L. (1997). So you want a web site, now what? Non-Profit World 15 (5), 21-24.

Frenza, J.P. & Hoffman, L. (1997). Organizing your web site content. Non-Profit World 15 (6), 14-16.

Hoffman L. & Frenza, J.P. (1998). Getting connected. Nonprofit World 16 (5), 20-23.

Hoffman L. & Frenza, J.P. (1998). Choosing an HTML editor: software reviews from the experts. Nonprofit World 16 (4), 22-24.

Hoffman L. & Frenza, J.P. (1998). Building your web site: HTML basics. Nonprofit World 16 (3), 22-24.

Grobman, G.M. & Grant, G.B. (1998). The non-profit Internet handbook. Harrisburg: White Hat Communications.

Lemay, L. (1995). Teach yourself web publishing with HTML in a week. Indianapolis: Sams Publications.

Roufa, M. (1999). Marketing your web site with search engines. Nonprofit World 17 (2), 12-14.

Wenham, K. & Stephens, D. & Hardy, R. (2003). The marketing effectiveness of U.K. environmental charity Websites compared to best practice. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing 8, 213-23.

Diffusion of Innovation Theory

Case, D., & Rogers, E. (1987). The adoption and social impacts of information technology in US agriculture. The Information Society,  5 (2),  057-066.

Compaine, B. M., (Ed.). (2001). The digital divide: Facing a crisis or creating a myth? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dillon, A. & Morris, M.G. (1996). User acceptance of information technology: Theories and models. Annual Review of information science and technology, 31, 3-32.

Grubler, A. (1997). Time for a Change: On the Patterns of Diffusion of Innovation IEEE engineering management review. 25 (2), 96

Holland, Matt (1997).Diffusion of innovation theories and their relevance to understanding the role of librarians when introducing users to networked information The Electronic library : the international journal 15 (5), 389

Huff, C. W. Dickson Jr., J. F. (1991) Finding Stable Support for Computing in Psychology: Lessons from Innovation Diffusion. Organizations Behavior research methods, instruments, & computing 23 (2), 130

Huff, S. & McNaughton, J. (1991). Diffusion of an Information Technology Innovation The Business quarterly. 56 (1), 25

Light, P.C. (1998). Sustaining innovation: Creating nonprofit and governmental organizations that innovate naturally. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lundblad, J. (2003). A Review and Critique of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory as it Applies to Organizations. Organization Development Journal. 21, (4),  50

Nambisan, S. & Wang, Y. (2000). Web technology adoption and knowledge barriers. Journal of organizational computing and electronic commerce. 10(2), 129-147.

Norris, D.F. (1999). Leading edge technologies and their adoption: lessons from US Cities. In Garson, G.D. (ed) (1999). Information technology and computer applications in public administration: Issues and trends. Harrisburg: Idea Group, 137-156.

Perry, C. A. & Rice, R. E. (1999). Network Influences on Involvement in the Hybrid Problem Area of Developmental Dyslexia. Science communication. 21 (1), 38

Robinson, M., Swan, J. & Newell, S. (1996). The role of networks in the diffusion of technological innovation. Journal of management studies, 33 (3), 333-359.

Rogers, E.M. (2003). The Diffusion of innovation. [Fifth Edition]. New York: Free Press.

Rodger, J. A. Pendharkar, Parag C. Bhatt, Ganesh D. (1996).Diffusion Theory and The Adoption of Software Innovation: Common Errors and Future Issues Journal of high technology management research., 7 (1), 1

Slappendel, C. (1996). Perspectives on innovation in organization. Organizational studies. 17, (1), 107-129.

Strang, D. & Soule, S.A. (1998). Diffusion in organizations and social movements: from hybrid corn to poison pills. Annual review of sociology. 22 (1), 265-91.

Surry, D. W. (1997). Diffusion theory and instructional technology. Paper presented at 1997 Annual Conference of the Association for educational communications and technology, Albuquerque, MN. Downloaded on April 12, 1999 from http://gsu.edu/-wwwitr/docs/diffusion/index.html.

Information Poverty and the Digital Divide

Barthold, C. & McNutt, J. G. (2009). The Emerging therapeutic system and the digital divide.  Ferro E., Dwivedi Y.K., Ramon G, Williams M.D. (Eds.).  Handbook of Research on Overcoming Digital Divides: Constructing an Equitable and Competitive Information Society. Harrisburg: IGI Books.

Compaine, B.M. (2001). The digital divide: facing a crisis or creating a myth? Cambridge: MIT Press.

Ebo, B. (Ed.). (1998). The cyberghetto or cybertopia: race, class, gender & marginalization in cyberspace. New York: Praeger.

McConnaughey, J., Nila, C.A. & Sloan, T. (1995). Falling through the cracks: a survey of the "have nots" in rural and urban America. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce. Available at http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/fallingthru.html

McConnaughey, J., Everette, D.W., Reynolds, T. & Lader, W. (1999). Falling through the net: defining the digital divide. Washington, DC: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce.

McNutt, J.G. (1996). National information infrastructure policy and the future of the American welfare state: implications for the social welfare policy curriculum. Journal of Social Work Education 6 (3), 375-388.

McNutt, J.G. (1998). Ensuring social justice for the new underclass: community interventions to meet the needs of the new poor. In Ebo, B. (Ed.), The Cyberghetto or Cybertopia: Race, Class, Gender & Marginalization in Cyberspace (pp. 33-47). New York: Praeger.

McNutt, J.G., Queiro-Tajalli, I., Boland, K.M. & Campbell, C. (2001). Information poverty and the Latino community: implications for social work practice and social work education. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work 10 (4), 1-20.

Morino Institute (2001). From access to outcomes: raising the aspirations for technology initiatives in low income communities. Available at http://www.morino.org/divides/

National Telecommunications and Information Administration (2004). A Nation Online: Entering the Broadband Age. Washington, DC: United States Department of Commerce

Norris, P. (2001). Digital divide. New York: Cambridge University Press. 

Queiro-Tajalli, I. & McNutt, J.M. (1998, March). Information poverty and the Latino community: implications for practice and education. Presentation at the 1998 CSWE Annual Program Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Selwin, N. (2004). Reconsidering political and popular understandings of the digital divide. New Media and society. 6 (3), 341-362.

Strover, S.(2003). Remapping the Digital Divide. The Information Society, 19, (4), 275-277.

Van Dijk, J., & Hacker, K. (2003). The Digital Divide as a Complex and Dynamic Phenomenon The Information Society, 19, (4), 315-326.

Vehovar, V., P. Sicherl, T. Hüsing, & V. Dolnicar. (2006). Methodological Challenges of Digital Divide Measurements. The Information Society,  22, (5), 279-290.

On-Line Research and Evaluation Methods

Anderson, S. E. & Gansneder, B. (1995). Using electronic mail surveys and computer-monitored data for studying computer-mediated communication systems. Social Science Computer Review 13 (1), 33-46.

Bauer, C. & Scharl, A. (2000). Quantitative evaluation of web site content and structure. Internet Research 10 (1), 31-43.

Coomber, R. (1997). Using the Internet for survey research. Sociological Research Online 2 (2). Available at http://www.socresonline.org.uk.socresonline/2/2/2.html

Eldred, J.C. (1995). Researching electronic networks. Written Communication 12 (3), 330.

Gaiser, T.J. (1997). Conducting on-line focus groups: a methodological discussion.
Social Science Computer Review 15 ( 2), 135.

Jones, S. (Ed.). (1999). Doing Internet research: critical issues and methods for examining the net. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Kastman, L.A. & Gurack, L.J. (1999). Conducting technical communications research via the Internet: guidelines for privacy, permissions and ownership in educational research. Technical Communications 46 (4), 460-469.

Paccagnella, L. (1997). Getting the seat of your pants dirty: strategies for ethnographic research on virtual communities. Journal of Computer Mediated Communications 3 (1). Available at http://www.usc.edu/dept/annenberg/vol3/issue1

Schaefer, D.R. & Dillman, D.A. (1998). Development of a standard e-mail methodology: results of an experiment. Public Opinion Quarterly 62 (3), 378-391.

Smith, C.B. (1997). Casting the net: surveying an Internet population. Journal of Computer Mediated Communications 3 (1). Available at http://www.usc.edu/dept/annenberg/vol3/issue1

Thach, L. (1995, March-April). Using electronic mail to conduct survey research. Educational Technology, 27-31.

Community Networks

Beacham, A. & Henry, M. (1997). Neighborhood networks: putting people to work. Journal of Housing and Community Development 54 (6), 31-35.

Beamish, A. (1995). Communities on-line: community-based computer networks. Masters Thesis, Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Available at http://alberti.mit.edu/arch/4.207/anneb/thesis/toc.html.

Chapman, G. & Rhodes, L. (1997, October). Nurturing neighborhood nets. Technological Review.

Cisler, S. (1995). Can we keep community networks running? Computer- Mediated Communication Magazine 2 (1), 6. http://metalab.unc.edu/cmc/mag/1995/jan/cisler.html

Cisler, S. (1993). Community computer networks: building electronic greenbelts. Available at http://bcn.boulder.co.us/community/resources/greenbelts.txt

Civille, R., Fidelman, M. & Altobello, J. (1993). A national strategy for civic networking: a vision of change. Charlestown, MA: The Center for Civic Networking.

Cohill, A.M. & Kavanaugh, A. (Eds.). (1999). Community networks: lessons learned from Blacksburg, Virginia (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Artech.

Doheny-Farina, D. (1996). The Wired Neighborhood. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Landon, S. (1997). Civic networks: building community on the net. Available at http://www.west.net/~insight/london/networks.htm

Lappe, L. & Du Boise, P. (1994). The quickening of America. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

McNutt, J.G. (1996, November). Community computer networks and the non-profit social services delivery system. Presentation at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Association of Nonprofit and Voluntary Action Scholars, New York, NY.

McNutt, J.G. & Rothman, D.M. (1997, December). Patterns of interaction between non-profit human services agencies and community computer networks. Presentation at the 26th Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Indianapolis, IN.

Molz, R.K. (1994). Civic networking in the United States: a report by Columbia University students. Internet Research 4 (4), 52-62.

Odasz, F. (1995). Issues in the development of community cooperative networks. In Kahin, B. & Keller, J. (Eds.), Public Access to the Internet (pp. 115-137). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Odasz, F. (1994). Community economic development networks: a grassroots leadership challenge. Internet Research, 4 (1), 2-6.

Pinkett, R. (2003). Community Technology and Community Building: Early Results from the Creating Community Connections Project. The Information Society, 19, (5), 365-379.

Schuler, D. (1994). Community networks: building a new participatory medium. Communications of the ACM 37 (1), 39-51.

Schuler, D. (1996). New community networks: wired for change. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley.

Servon, L.J. & Horrigan, J.B. (1996). Urban poverty and access to information technology: a role for local government. New Brunswick: Rutgers University, Center for Urban Policy Research Working Paper No. 115.

Stoecker, R. & Stuber, A.C. (1997). Limited access: the Information Superhighway and Ohio’s neighborhood-based organizations. Computers in Human Services 14 (1), 39-57.

Virnoche, M.E. (1998). The seamless web and communications equity: the shaping of a community network. Science, Technology and Human Values 23 (2), 199-221. 


Balutis, A.P. (2001). E-government strategy 2001, Part 1: understanding the challenge and evolving strategies. The Public Manager 30 (1), 33-37.

Balutis, A.P. (2001). E-government strategy 2001, Part 2: evolving strategies for action. The Public Manager 30 (2), 41-45.

Baxandall, P. & Wohlschlegel, K.. (2010). Following the Money Washington, DC: U.S. PIRG Education Fund. Retrieved from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/b3ba157e28d82952ee5b7a3f84e88499/Following-the-Money-USPIRG.pdf..

Becker, S. A. (2004). E-government visual accessibility for older adult users. Social Science Computer Review, 22(1), 11-23.

Becker, T. (1993). Teledemocracy: Gathering momentum in state and local governance. Spectrum: The Journal of State and Government, 66(2), 14-19.

Becker, T. (2004). Teledemocratic innovations that public officials ignore: At our great peril. In M. Mälkiä, A. Anttiroiko & R. Savolainen (Eds.), eTransformation in Governance: New directions in government and politics (pp. 51-66). Hershey: Idea Group Publishing.

Becker, T. & Slaton, C. (2000). The future of teledemocracy. New York: Praeger.

Bekkers, V. (2003). E-government and the emergence of virtual organizations in the public sector. Information polity 8, 89-101.

Bertot, J. C., & Jaeger, P. T. (2006). User-centered e-government: Challenges and benefits for government websites. Government Information Quarterly, 23(2), 163-168.

Biancucci. R.J., Goode, L.J., Hunter, P.A., Owings, K., Tucker, A. & Willett, R.B. (2001). 2001 CFO survey-a preview: electronic government. Journal of Government Financial Management 50 (2), 36-39.

Bellamy, C, & Taylor, J. A. (1998). Governing in the information age. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Bovens, M. & Zouridis, S. (2002). From street-level to system-level bureaucracies: How information and communication technology is transforming administrative discretion and constitution control. Public Administration Review, 62(2), 174-184.

Brainard, L. & McNutt, J.G.  (2010). Virtual Government-Citizen Relations: Old Public Administration, New Public Management or New Public Service? Administration and Society. 42: 836-858

Carter, M. & Turner, R. (2001). Plugged in turning up an assessment of state legislative websites. Washington, DC: OMBWatch.

Coleman, R., Lieber, P., Mendelson, A., & Kurpius, D. (2008) Public life and the internet: If you build a better website, will citizens become engaged? New Media & Society. 10, 179-201.

Cooper, C. (2004). Internet use in state legislatures. Social science computer review.22 (3), 347-354.

Cooper, C. A. (2002). E-mail in the state legislature: Evidence from three states. State and Local Government Review, 34, 127-132.

Cooper, C.A. (2004). Internet use in the state legislature: A research note. Social Science Computer Review . 22, (3), 347.

Davis, R. (1999). The Web of politics: the Internet’s impact on the American political system. New York: Oxford University Press.

Edmiston, K. D. (2003). State and local e-government: Prospects and challenges. American Review of Public Administration, 33(1), 20-45.

Eggers, W. (2005). Government 2.0. Lantham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Ferber, P. Foltz, F. Pugliese, R. (2008) Demographics and political characteristics affecting state legislature websites: The quality and digital divides. Journal of Political Marketing 7 (1),  48-68.

Fountain, J. (2001). Building the digital state. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Gil-Garcia, J. R. & Pardo, T. A.  (2005). E-Government  success factors: Mapping practical tools to theoretical foundations. Government Information Quarterly, 22,  187-216.

Gil-Garcia, J.R. (2007). Understanding the evolution of e-government: The influence of systems of rules on public sector dynamics. Government Information Quarterly 24 (2) 266–290

Goldsmith, S. &  Eggers, W. D. (2004). Governing by network: The New shape of the public sector. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Greene, R. (2001). Open access: GIS in e-government. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Greene, R.W. (2000). GIS in public policy. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.

Haskett, G. & McNutt, J.G. (2003, February 27 – March 2). Teaching social work students about e-government: a challenge for the social policy curriculum. Presentation at the 49th Annual Program Meeting of the Council on Social Work Education, Atlanta, GA.

Ho, A. T.-K. (2002). Reinventing local governments and the e-government initiative. Public Administration Review, 62(4), 434-444.

Holden, S. H., Norris, D. F., & Flethcher, P. D. (2003). Electronic government at the local level. Public Performance & Management Review, 26(4), 325-344.

Holmes, D. (2001). E-gov: e-business strategies for government. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Holzer, M., Manoharan, A., Shick, R. & Stowers, G. (2008). U.S. State E-Government Report. Newark, NJ: National center for public performance. Retrieved fromhttp://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~egovinst/Website/PDFs/US%20State%20Survey%20(Full%20Report).pdf

Jaeger, P. T. (2003). The endless wire: E-government as global phenomenon. Government Information Quarterly, 20(4), 323-331.

Jaeger, P. T. (2004). Beyond Section 508: The spectrum of legal requirements for accessible e-government websites in the United States. Journal of Government Information, 30(4), 518-533.

Jaeger, P. T. (2004). The social impact of an accessible e-democracy: Disability law in the development of the e-government. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 15(1), 19-26.

Jaeger, P. T. (2005). Deliberative democracy and the conceptual foundations of electronic government. Government Information Quarterly, 22(4), 702-719.

Jaeger, P. T. (2006). Assessing Section 508 compliance on federal e-government websites: A multi-method, user-centered evaluation of accessibility for persons with disabilities. Government Information Quarterly, 23(2), 169-190.

Jaeger, P. T. (2006). Telecommunications policy and individuals with disabilities: Issues of accessibility and social inclusion in the policy and research agenda. Telecommunications Policy, 30(2), 112-124.

Justice, J., McNutt, J. & Smith, E.** (2011).  Holding state governments accountable for the public purse: What institutional, organizational and environmental factors promote fiscal transparency?  Paper accepted to be read at the First Global Conference on Transparency Research. May 19-20, Newark, NJ  [Juried]

Kim, S. & Layne, K. (2001). Making the connection: e-government and public administration education. Journal of Public Affairs Education 7 (4), 229-240.

Kim, S. & Lee, H. (2006). The Impact of Organizational Context and IT on Employee Knowledge Sharing Capabilities in Public and Private Organizations.   Public Administration Review, 66(3): 370-385. 

Kim, S.  (2006). Electronic Government Leadership and HRM Capacity Building in Local Government.  Personnel-Mix 9-10(043-044): 101-104 

Larsen, E. & Rainie, L. (2002). Digital town hall: how officials use the Internet and the civic benefits they cite from dealing with constituents on-line. Washington DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project.

Lathrop, D. & Ruma, L. (2010). (ed) Open Government: Collaboration, Transparency, and Participation in Practice. Sevastopol, CA: O’Reilly

Lemmon, P. & Carter, M. (1998). Speaking up in the Internet age. Washington, DC: OMBWatch.

Loader, B. D. (Ed.). (1997). The Governance of Cyberspace. London: Routledge.

McNutt, J.G.  (2006). Electronic Government, the Internet and Disasters: An Emerging Relationship. Documents to the people.  34 (1), 17-21.

McNutt, J.G., Lima, J., Penkaukaus, K. & Rusoff, M. (1999, November). A study of the impact of Internet based technologies on the legislative process at the state level. Presentation at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Arlington, VA.

McNutt, J.G., Boland, K.M. & Haskett, G. (2002, November 14-16). Electronic government and electronic advocacy: an empirical exploration of relationships and patterns. Presentation at the 31st Annual Meeting of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars, Montreal, Quebec.

McNutt, J., Justice, J. & Smith, E. (2011).State Fiscal Transparency, E-Government Performance and Social Capital.  Paper accepted to be read at the Urban Affairs Association’s 41st Conference Reclaiming the City: Building a Just and Sustainable Future New Orleans, Louisiana March 16-19, 2011. [Juried]

McNutt, J. G. & Brainard, L. (2011). Electronic Government, social capital,  and levels of On-line Participation at the State Level. Paper Accepted to be Read at 2011 Meeting on the American Society for Public Administration, Baltimore, MD March 11-15 [Juried]

McNutt, J.G. (2010). social networking and constituent relationships at the state level:  connecting government to citizens in a time of crisis. Paper Read at the Northeast Conference on Public Administration (NECoPA) Newark, New Jersey - October 22-23, 2010  [Juried]

McNutt, J. G. & Brainard, L. (2010). Citizen Participation and Electronic Government in the States: Help or Hindrance? Paper read at the Urban Affairs Association 40th Conference Sustaining Cities in a Time of Globalization: Social, Economic and Political Realities. March 10 - 13, 2010, Honolulu, Hawaii  [Juried]

Milakovich, M.E. (2012). Digital governance: New technologies for improving public service and participation. New York, NY: Routledge

Milward, H.B. & Snyder, L.O. (1996). Electronic government: linking citizens to public organizations through technology. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 6 (2), 261-275.

Moon, M. J. (2002). The evolution of e-government among municipalities: rhetoric or reality? Public Administration Review, 62(4), 424-433.

Noveck, B. (2009). WikiGovernment. Washington, DC: Brookings.

O’Looney, J. A. (2002). Wiring governments: Challenges and possibilities for public managers. Westport: Quorum Books.

Pole, A. J. (2000). The role computing technology and the New York State Legislature. In G. David Garson (Ed.), Handbook of public information systems. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Relyea, H. C. (2001). E-gov: The federal overview. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 27(2), 131-148.

 Rocheleau, B. (2000). Prescriptions for public-sector information management: A review, analysis, and critique. American Review of Public Administration, 30(4), 414-435.

West, D.M. (2000). Assessing e-government: the Internet, democracy and service delivery by state and local government. Available at http://www.insidepolitics.org/egovtreport00.html

West, D.M. (2001, August 30 - September 2). E-government and the transformation of public sector service delivery. Presentation at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, CA. 

West, D.M. (2005). Digital government: Technology and public sector performance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Virtual Volunteering

Cravens. J. (2000). Virtual Volunteering: Online Volunteers Providing Assistance to Human Service Agencies. Journal of Technology in Human Services 17 (2-3), 119 - 136.

Murray, V. & Harrison, Y. (2002).  Virtual volunteering: Current status and future prospects.  Toronto:  Canadian Center for Philanthropy

Evaluating Advocacy

Andrews, K. T., Ganz, M.,  Baggetta, M.,  Han, H., & Lim, C.  (2010).  Leadership, membership, and voice:  Civic associations that work.  American Journal of Sociology, 115(4):  1191-1242.

Egbert M. & Hoechstetter, S. (2006). Mission Possible: Evaluating Advocacy Grants. Foundation 47 (1). Available at http://www.foundationnews.org/CME/article.cfm?ID=3545

Harvard Evaluation Exchange (2007). Special Issue on Evaluating policy and advocacy.13 (1)  Available at http://www.hfrp.org/var/hfrp/storage/original/application/6bdf92c3d7e970e7270588109e23b678.pdf

Innovation Network (2008). Speaking for Themselves: Advocates' Perspectives on Evaluation. Baltimore: Annie E Casey Foundation

Knott, J.H., Weissert, C.S. & Henry, R.C.(1999). Evaluating the impact on public policy of foundation sponsored programs in the health professions. Evaluation and the health professions. 22 (3), 342-357.

McNutt, J.G. (2006). Building Evidence Based Advocacy in Cyberspace: A Social Work Imperative for the New Millennium.
Journal of evidence-based practice 3 (2/3) 91-102.

Reisman, J., Gienapp,A. & Stachowik, S. (2007). A Guide to measuring advocacy and policy. Baltimore: Annie E Casey Foundation.

Reisman, J., Gienapp,A. & Stachowik, S. (2007). A Handbook of data collection tools: A Companion to " A Guide to measuring advocacy and policy." Baltimore: Annie E Casey Foundation.

Stead, M. Hastings, G. & Eadie, D. (2002). The challenge of evaluating complex interventions: a framework for evaluating media advocacy  Health Education. Research, 17(3): 351 - 364

Treno, A. & Holder H.D. (1997). Community Mobilization, Organizing, and Media Advocacy: A Discussion of Methodological Issues
Evaluation Review, 21(2): 166 - 190.

Google Trends and Insight for Search

Barclay, E. (2008). Predicting the next pandemic. Lancet. ;372(9643):1025-6.

Breyer, B.N.& Eisenberg, M. L  (2010). Use of Google in Study of Noninfectious Medical Conditions. Epidemiology: 21 (4), 584-585

Choi, H. & Varian, H. (2009) Predicting the present with Google Trends. Google, Inc. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1659302

Ginsberg J, Mohebbi MH, Patel RS, Brammer L, Smolinski MS & Brilliant L(2009) Detecting influenza epidemics using search engine query data. Nature 2009;457:1012–4.

Googling the future; Economic indicators.(2009, April 18). The Economist. 391,(8627), 82

Pelat C, Turbelin C, Bar-Hen A, Flahaut A &Valleron A-J. (2009). More diseases tracked by using Google Trends. Emerging Infectious Disease. 15, 1327-8.

Polgreen PM, Chen Y, Pennock DM & Nelson FD (2008).Using internet searches for influenza surveillance. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 47,1443–8.

Purcell, K. (2011). Search and email still top the list of most popular online activities. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/Search-and-email.aspx

Reis, B.Y & Brownstein, J.S. (2010). Measuring the impact of health policies using Internet search patterns: the case of abortion BMC Public Health 10, 514

Ripberger, J.T. (2011) Capturing Curiosity: Using Internet Search Trends to Measure Public Attentiveness. Policy Studies Journal39 (2), 239-259

Scharkow, M. (2011).Measuring the Public Agenda using Search Engine Queries. Int. Journal of Public Opinion Research 23 (1), 104-113.

Scheitle, C. P. (2011).  Google's Insights for Search: A Note Evaluating the Use of Search Engine Data in Social Research. Social Science Quarterly, 92,(1), 285-295.

Schuster, N.M., Rogers, M. &McMahon, L.(2010). Using Search Engine Query Data to Track Pharmaceutical Utilization: A Study of Statins. American Journal of Managed Care. 16(8), e215-e219

Seifter A, Schwarzwalder A, Geis K, Aucott J. (2010). The utility of "Google Trends" for epidemiological research: Lyme disease as an example. Geospatial Health. 4(2):135-7.

Sherman,-Morris, K., Senkbeil, R. & Carver, R. (2011).Who's Googling What? What Internet Searches Reveal about Hurricane Information Seeking. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, (8), 975-985

Smith, B., Costello, T. & Brecher, J. (2009, January 15). Social movements, 2.0. The Nation. http://www.the nation.com/docs/20090202/smith_costello_brecher

Stylios, G., Christodoulakis, D., Besharat, J., Kotrotsos, I., Koumpouri, A., & Stamou, S. (2011). Public Opinion Mining for Governmental Decisions. Electronic Journal of Electronic Government, 8(2), 202-213.

Tancer, W.  (2008). Click: What Millions of People Are Doing Online and Why it Matters. New York: Hyperion.

Temple-Raston, D. (2011, March 25). Google: A New Tool For U.S. Intelligence? National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/2011/03/25/134666365/a-new-tool-for-u-s-intelligence-google

Valdivia A, Lopez-Alcalde J, Vicente M, Pichiule M, Ruiz M, et al. (2010). Monitoring influenza activity in Europe with Google Flu Trends: comparison with the findings of sentinel physician networks - results for 2009-10. Euro Surveillance 15 (29)

Webb, G. (2009). Internet search statistics as a source of business intelligence:  Searches on foreclosure as an estimate of actual home foreclosures. Issues in Information Systems 10(2)82-87.

 Willard, S.D. & Nguyen, M.M. (2011 ). Internet Search Trends Analysis Tools Can Provide Real-time Data on Kidney Stone Disease in the United States.Journal of Urology.4.24

Transparency and Open Government

Baxandall, P., & Wohlschlegel, K. (2010). Following the money: How the 50 states rate in providing online access to government spending data. Washington, DC: U.S. PIRG Education Fund. Retrieved from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/b3ba157e28d82952ee5b7a3f84e88499/Following-the-Money-USPIRG.pdf

Berner, M., & Smith, S. (2004). The state of the states: A review of state requirements for citizen participation in the local government budget process. State and Local Government Review, 36(2), 140-150.

Boylan, R. T., & Long, C. X. (2003). Measuring Public Corruption in the American States: A Survey of State House Reporters. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 3(4), 420-438.

Ebdon, C. (2000). The relationship between citizen involvement in the budget process and city structure and culture. Public Productivity & Management Review, 23(3), 383-393.

Ebdon, C., & Franklin, A. L. (2006). Citizen participation in budgeting theory. Public Administration Review, 66(3), 437-447.

Franklin, A. L., Ho, A. T., & Ebdon, C. (2009). Participatory budgeting in Midwestern states: Democratic connection or citizen disconnection? Public Budgeting & Finance, 29(3), 52-73.

Gandia, J. L., & Archidona, M. C. (2008). Determinants of web site information by Spanish city councils. Online Information Review, 32(2), 35-57.

Garcia, A. C., & Garcia, J. G. (2008). Determinants of Internet financial disclosure by local governments. Revista Espanola De Financiacion Y Contabilidad-Spanish Journal of Finance and Accounting, 37(137), 63-84.

Garcia, A. C., & Garcia-Garcia, J. (2010). Determinants of Online Reporting of Accounting Information by Spanish Local Government Authorities. Local Government Studies, 36(5), 679 - 695.

Government Finance Officers Association. (2003). Using websites to improve access to budget documents and financial reports. GFOA Recommended Practices Retrieved October 2, 2004, from http://gfoa.org/services/rp/caafr/caafr-budgets-to-websites.pdf

Government Finance Officers Association. (2009, February 27). Website presentation of official financial documents. Best Practices Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/websitepresentation.pdf

Government Finance Officers Association. (2010, October 15). Using a website for disclosure. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/debt-using-web.pdf

Heald, D. (2003). Fiscal Transparency: Concepts, Measurement and UK Practice. Public Administration, 81(4), 723-759.

International Budget Partnership. (2010a). Open budget survey. Retrieved February 11, 2011, from http://internationalbudget.org/what-we-do/open-budget-survey/

International Budget Partnership. (2010b). Open budget survey full report. Washington, DC: International Budget Partnership.

Jones, D. B., Scott, R. B., Kimbro, L., & Ingram, R. (1985). The needs of users of governmental financial reports. Stamford, CT: Governmental Accounting Standards Board.

Justice, J. B., Melitski, J., & Smith, D. L. (2006). E-Government as an instrument of fiscal accountability and responsiveness: Do the best practitioners employ the best practices? American Review of Public Administration, 36(3), 301-322.

Kahn, J. (1993). Re-presenting government and representing the people: Budget reform and citizenship in New York City, 1908-1911. Journal of Urban History, 19(3), 84-103.

Kahn, J. (1997). Budgeting democracy: State building and citizenship in America, 1890-1928. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Laswad, F., Fisher, R., & Oyelere, P. (2005). Determinants of voluntary Internet financial reporting by local government authorities. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 24(2), 101-121.

Lathrop, D. & Ruma, L. (2010). (ed) Open Government: Collaboration, Transparency, and Participation in Practice. Sevastopol, CA: O’Reilly

Ledet, R. (2011). Correlates of corruption: Rethinking social capital's relationship with government in the United States. Public Integrity, 13(2), 149-162.

Marks, B. R., & Raman, K. K. (1987). Some additional evidence on the determinants of state audit budgets. Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory, 7(1), 106-117.

Marks, B. R., Raman, K. K., & Wilson, E. R. (1988). Toward understanding the determinants of pension underfunding in the public sector. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 7(3), 157-183.

Perez, C. C. (2008). E-Government process and incentives for online public financial information. Online Information Review, 32(3), 379-400.

Robinson, M. (2006, September). Budget Analysis and Policy Advocacy: The Role of Nongovernmental Public Action. Retrieved August 6, 2007, from http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/bookshop/wp/wp279.pdf

Robinson, M. (Ed.). (2008). Budgeting for the Poor. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Serrano-Cinca, C., Rueda-Tom s, M., & Portillo-Tarragona, P. (2009). Factors influencing e-disclosure in local public administrations. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 27(2), 355-378.

Smith, K. A. (2004). Voluntarily reporting performance measures to the public: A test of accounting reports from U.S. cities. International Public Management Journal, 7(1), 19-48.

Styles, A. K., & Tennyson, M. (2007). The accessibility of financial reporting of U.S. municipalities on the Internet. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, 19(1), 56-92.


(c) 1998-2018 by John G. McNutt. All Rights Reserved. Limited Permission is Granted for Reproduction for Non-Commercial Educational Purposes.  Revised 09/27/18